Tamanna Chowdhury :
Kidney is a vital organ in the human body. This year the celebration theme was ‘Kidney Disease and Obesity - Healthy lifestyle for Healthy Kidney.’
It is very necessary for everyone to maintain a healthy lifestyle to stay fit throughout the life. Healthy life can be achieved if a balanced diet, routine exercise, stress free mind, proper sleeping habit, cleanliness and hygiene can be maintained regularly. Family inherited diseases and Genetic diseases can be prevented and as well as cured if a properly balanced lifestyle is maintained.
At today's date, beside consumption of contaminated food, uncontrolled blood pressure and diabetes, excessive protein intake, repeated urine infection, there are many other factors that is resulting in increased kidney diseases among the population. A balanced diet plays an important role in the treatment of kidney diseases.
Hypertension, diabetes and also critical diseases like heart diseases can be battled, only if proper body weight balance can be maintained. Previously obesity was accounted for the root of many diseases, but now obesity itself is considered as a disease. A balanced diet and routine exercise is the key to proper height to body weight ratio.
In the medical industry, no remedies have been developed till date to directly control the level of creatinine. However, putting no stress to the kidney if proper medication is undertaken the level of creatinine can be undermined and obstacle to kidney diseases can be established. A patient must fix his/her diet if the level of creatinine in blood goes up.
In any other health issues, the disease can almost be controlled with proper medication only. But in cases of kidney diseases, alongside medication a balanced diet with proper amount of nutrient needs to be prepared for the patient. For a kidney patient, it is mandatory to take regular consultation from a dietitian also.
There is no single common diet for all kidney patients. It is almost impossible to prescribe any. The diet plan is always unique for different patients. Because the diet is prescribed in according to the level of every element in patient's blood, patient's weight and age.
Compared to any other patient, higher calorie is essential for a kidney patient. For every kilogram the stipulated calorie usually ranges from 30 to 35. For your body not to break down due to lack of protein, most of the calories are allocated form carbohydrate.
Although the amount of calorie for a diabetic kidney patient is determined in accordance to his/her diabetic condition. Rice/Bread (Flour or wheat), Chira/Shagu/Shuji, etc are ideal for kidney diseases.
Controlled protein level is very important for kidney patients. Amount of protein is determined in accordance to the levels of creatinine, Urine micro albumin, urea and uric acid and patient's weight etc. Usually White egg, chicken breast, fish, low fat milk or yogurt are protein rich and are recommended for kidney patients. Most patients misinterpret with 30gm protein as 30gm fish or meat, which is absolutely wrong. 30gm protein usually means, the amount of protein intake for a patient in a 24hr cycle. How much fish or meat is required for 30gm protein intake, shall be weighed separately. We must remember 30 gm protein does not mean 30gm of fish or meat or egg. As for example, we only get 3.2gm of protein from one white egg (approx).
Amount of fruits and vegetable to be eaten is determined on the level of electrolytes, uric acid and edema in the blood. Generally, a kidney patient is suggested to take 40ml to 60ml equivalent potassium every day. Hence amount of fruits and vegetables required for the suggested potassium level is determined by the dietician. Apple, Pears, Guava, Papaya is commonly recommended. However, purine and highly potassium rich vegetables like cauliflower, tomato, ladies finger etc. are strictly prohibited.
The amount of liquid consumed by the patient in 24hrs are determined by the level of edema, estimated GFR, amount of sodium in blood, amount of creatinine and the prescribed medicines. Specific time of the day must also be considered while measuring the amount of liquids. Generally, a patient is suggested to consume 1 to 1.5 liters of liquid, inclusive of water, tea, milk etc. in a 24hrs cycle.
A kidney patient’s sodium level must be stable. 2gm to 5gm of salt can be consumed judging by the level of sodium and edema in patient's blood. 1 tea spoon of salt weighs around 5gm. Patient is advised to refrain from additional salt consumption.
Kidney patients are often found with suffering from fatigue and other health issues. Mostly due to significant fall in hemoglobin in the blood. If so, the patient must be prescribed with a supplement or injection by the doctor. But patient must not break their diet and have additional food in hopes of increasing hemoglobin.
However, there are a few foods that a kidney patient is suggested to avoid, example; cold drinks, pickles, mutton, deep oil fries, coffee, chanachur, papor, junk food and refrigerated cooked food, etc.
Hence, I would suggest all the patients to diagnose their urine and blood in every 3-month interval. Beside doctor’s consultation, also routinely see a dietician and have you diet plan prescribed. In this way your kidney won’t be stressed and level of creatinine in your blood could be controllable.
Wish you a healthy life. n
(Tamanna Chowdhury, Principal
Dietitian - Apollo Hospitals Dhaka)