Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Monday, August 21, 2017 07:50:33 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Disability among elderly on the rise

By
08th-Aug-2017       Readers ( 174 )   0 Comments
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all (0) »

Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni and Raghav Gaiha :
The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016 (or RPD Act) is laudable in its intent and procedural detail, but mostly silent on disabilities among the elderly. Indeed, for this reason alone, it is arguable that its overarching goal-"The appropriate Government shall ensure that the persons with disabilities enjoy the right to equality, life with dignity and respect for his or her integrity equally with others" -is mere rhetoric, if not a pipe dream.
Disability is part of human condition. Almost everyone will be temporarily or permanently impaired at some point in life, and those who survive to old age will experience increasing difficulties in functioning. Disability is neither purely medical nor purely social. Rather, it is an outcome of their interplay. Chronic diseases (e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer) are associated with impairments that get aggravated by stigma, discrimination in access to educational and medical services, and job market. Higher disability rates among older people reflect an accumulation of health risks across a lifespan of disease, injury, and chronic illness (WHO and World Bank, 2011). The co-occurrence of NCDs and disabilities among them poses considerably higher risk of mortality, relative to those not suffering from either or one.
There is a bidirectional link between disability and poverty: disability may increase the risk of poverty, and poverty may increase the risk of disability. Households with a disabled member are more likely to experience material hardship-including food insecurity, poor housing, lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and inadequate access to healthcare. Poverty may increase the likelihood that a person with an existing health condition becomes disabled, for example, by an inaccessible environment or lack of access to appropriate health and rehabilitation services.
There is a bidirectional link between disability and poverty: disability may increase the risk of poverty, and poverty may increase the risk of disability. Households with a disabled member are more likely to experience material hardship.
Detailed evidence on disabilities and their correlates is particularly relevant as India's elderly population (60 years or more) is growing three times faster than the population as a whole. Three demographic processes are at work: declining fertility rates, increasing longevity and large cohorts advancing to old age (Bloom et al. 2014). As both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and disabilities tend to rise with age, often in tandem, the inadequacies of the present health systems, community networks and family support may magnify to render these support systems largely ineffective. If the costs in terms of productivity losses are added, the total cost burden of looking after the disabled elderly may be enormously higher in the near future.
Disability is usually measured by a set of items on self-reported limitations with severity of disability ranked by the number of positively answered items. Disabilities in activities of daily living (ADL) show dependence of an individual on others, with need for assistance in daily life. The activities of feeding, dressing, bathing or showering, walking 1 km, hearing, transferring from bed and chair, normal vision, and continence are central to self-care and are called basic ADLs.
A review of the evidence from the India Human Development Survey 2015 (IHDS) that tracks the same sample of individuals over the period 2005-2012, yields useful insights from a policy perspective. IHDS covers seven disabilities already defined.
At an all-India level, there was a very rapid rise in the prevalence of all disabilities among the elderly during 2005-2012, from 8.4% to over 36%.
The prevalence was much higher among the older elderly (i.e. >70 years) than among 60-70 years old. Besides, it shot up to over 50% among the former in 2012 as compared with 33% among the latter. So the more rapid the ageing of India's population, the higher will be the prevalence of disabilities.
The disability prevalence was slightly higher among elderly females, but became considerably higher in 2012. From about 9.4% in 2005, it rose to nearly 40% in 2012. Thus lower survival prospects for elderly women are likely to reflect greater disability.
There was a reversal in the rural-urban disabilities, with a slightly larger prevalence in urban areas, but both rose substantially with a larger prevalence in rural areas (about 37% as compared with 35%). If we use caste as a predictor of socio-economic deprivation, we find that disabilities rose much faster among the SCs than in the General category, with the prevalence among the former rising from 6.9% to about 37%. Besides, each category (including OBCs, and STs) witnessed a sharp rise in disabilities.
There are two ways of examining the link between poverty and disabilities: one is to assess whether the prevalence of disability is higher among the poor, using the official poverty line, and another is to rely on a ranking based on assets. We prefer the latter, since income fluctuates more than assets. Distinguishing between the least wealthy (or the first wealth quartile) and the most wealthy (the fourth quartile), we find that while the prevalence of disabilities was about the same in both (about 9.7%), it rose at a much faster rate among the least wealthy, resulting in the highest prevalence (39.5%) in 2012. As there is a strong association between NCDs and disabilities (e.g. between diabetes and restricted mobility and vision impairment, heart disease and limited mobility, stroke and speech and mobility impairment), some of the risk factors associated with the former are also linked to the latter. These include smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary transition to consumption of energy-dense foods-high in salts, fats and sugars-and sedentary lifestyles. As the population ages, and the burden of NCDs rises, disabilities are likely to be far more pervasive. Compounded by lack of access to disability-related services (e.g. assistive devices such as wheelchair, hearing aid, specialised medical services, rehabilitation), and persistence of negative imagery and language, stereotypes, and stigma-with deep historic roots-leading to discrimination in education and employment-the temptation to offer simplistic but largely medical solutions must be resisted. In brief, a multidimensional strategy is needed that includes prevention of disabling barriers as well as prevention and treatment of underlying health conditions.
(Veena S. Kulkarni is Associate Professor, Department of Criminology, Sociology, & Geography, Arkansas State University, US; Vani S. Kulkarni is Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, US; and Raghav Gaiha is (Hon.) Professorial Fellow, Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, England)

0 Comments. Share your thoughts also.
Write a comment
Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Editorial »

River erosion now adds to flood woes


REPEATED environmental disasters seem to take heavy toll on the people of this country this year. Followed by unprecedented off-season heavy rainfall, landslides, flash floods and the ongoing floods again, the newest woe that hits the people is unprecedented river erosions in the north and middle parts of the country. ...

Cricket »

Mominul to replace Mosaddek in 14-member national squad


A day after his omission from the team, top order batsman and most consistent performer in the longer version cricket Mominul Haque was recalled to the Bangladesh's squad on Sunday for the first Test against touring Australia scheduled to begin on August 27 at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium (SBNCS) in ...

Entertainment »

I have left everything for films and there is no looking back: Srinidhi Shetty


Miss Supranational 2016 Srinidhi Shetty is an engineer, model and soon to be actress. Srinidhi started her pageant career after she finished her engineering degree from Bengaluru. She then participated in Yamaha Fascino Miss Diva 2016 and Miss Supernational 2016. 2016 has been Srinidhi's reigning year as Miss Supranational and ...

International »

Iraq begins battle to retake Tal Afar, IS bastion near Mosul


AFP, Baghdad :Iraqi forces on Sunday launched an assault to retake the northern city of Tal Afar from the Islamic State group, after ousting the jihadists from Mosul last month.Tal Afar lies around 70 kilometres (45 miles) west of second city Mosul, which Iraqi forces recaptured in early July in ...

City »

Chairman of Awami Juba League (AJL) Omar Faruque Chowdhury speaking at a memorial meeting on August 21 grenade attack victims organised by (AJL) at Shilpakala Academy in the city on Sunday.


Cricket »

Members of Australian Cricket team during their practice session at the Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium in Mirpur on Saturday.


Sports »

Farah bids to give British fans memorable farewell


British athletics great Mo Farah will hope his final track race on home turf on Sunday will have a happier ending than last Saturday's world 5,000 metres final. The 34-year-old, who will compete in the 3,000 metres at the Diamond League meeting in Birmingham, produced a courageous performance just falling ...

Editorial »

Berlin confce to protect Sundarbans


A EUROPEAN conference on Sundarbans started in German capital Berlin yesterday to discuss how to protect the world's greatest mangrove forest from destruction at a time when our government is determined to continue with the construction of the giant Rampal Coal-fired Plant. It is being built as a joint venture ...

Entertainment »

Sonam to act in the film adaptation of The Zoya Factor


Sonam Kapoor had reportedly signed on for the movie adaptation of Anuja Chauhan's Battle For Bittora opposite Fawad Khan. But the film never materialised as relations between India and Pakistan soured. Now, the buzz is that she's been signed on for another movie adaptation of Anuja Chauhan's The Zoya Factor.  ...

City »

Road Transport and Bridges Minister Obaidul Quader, among others, at a discussion on 42nd martyrdom anniversary of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and National Mourning Day organised by Bangladesh Awami Juba League in the auditorium of the city's Engineers' Institution on Saturday.


International »

India wildlife reserve park devastated by monsoon floods


AP, Guahati :Rising floodwaters have inundated large parts of a famous wildlife reserve park in northeastern India, killing more than 225 animals and forcing hundreds of other animals to flee, the park director said Saturday.Around 15 rhinos, 185 deer and at least one Royal Bengal tiger have died in the ...

Editorial »

Import is not enough; make sure people get rice at low cost


THE country is apparently facing acute food shortage; which is evident from a government decision to increase food grains import to 20 lakh tonnes this year from earlier announced import at 11 lakh tonnes. The cause of the sudden rise in import is that the country has lost over 20 ...

Sports »

Thailand`s Pornchai Kaokaew (center) kicks a ball against Indonesia's Saiful Rijai (left) and Syamsul Hadi during the men's Sepak Takraw Regu competition at South East Asian Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on Friday.


.

Entertainment »

Friends & Family bring in Sangeeta Ahir`s birthday with a bang


Even though once and still considered a taboo, Suicide and depression are rarely the theme of films in Indian cinema. Depression is alarmingly rising in the youth and adults in India making it a major cause of concern. Depression is usually caused by traumatic experiences, bad relationships, anxiety, and low ...

International »

Civilian deaths surge in Raqqa as IS tactics slow US-backed advances


VOA News :As U.S.-backed forces continue to make slow progress in their offensive to oust Islamic State (IS) from its self-proclaimed capital of Raqqa, thousands of civilians who are trapped in the city face an increasing danger of getting caught in crossfire, rights organizations and local activists warn.Officials from the ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news