Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Thursday, July 19, 2018 02:00:51 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Independence not a windfall

photo by

By
16th-Dec-2017       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Abdullah Akber :
The emergence of Bangladesh was not the windfall of the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, nor was it born overnight. It has a long history beginning in March 1940 and ended in December 1971 thanks to the farsighted leadership quality of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, among others.
The historic Lahore Resolution adopted in 1940 incorporated those areas in which the Muslims were numerically in a majority as in the northwestern and the eastern zones of India to constitute 'Independent States' in which the constituent units would be autonomous and sovereign.
The resolution clearly referred to an independent and sovereign State of Bengal in the eastern India. But afterward, the Muslim League leaders from Punjab began conspiracy against the Lahore Resolution and finally in April 1946 at the League's Delhi conference dropped the letter 's' from the word 'States'. In truth, it was the reflection of the West Pakistan Muslim League leaders' colonial frame of mind.
It was dearly deviation from the principles of the Lahore Resolution An 10-member committee by a 7-3 majority took the decision. Abul Hashim, Muslim League representative from Bengal, strongly protested and said, the Muslim majority eastern zone and the Muslim majority northwestern zone cannot constitute one State because they are separated from each other by over 1000 miles.
The same year the Muslim League won 113 seats out of 119 in the Bengal Provincial Legislative election. Krishak Proja Party of  A K.Fazlul Huq won six seats only.
In 1946, the Cabinet Mission suggested a federal type of government in India. The Indian provinces were recast into three zones.  Zone 1 constituted Hindu majority United Province, Central Province, Bihar, Urissa, Madras and Bombay, Zone 11 included the Muslim majority Punjab, Sind, Beluchistan and North West Frontier Province, while Zone Ill had Bengal and Assam.  This proposal  also could not be workable.
In view of all these, HS Suhrawardy, submitted a proposal in April 1947 for an independent and sovereign Bengal. Muslim League leader Abul Hashim and Forward Bloc leader Sarat Bose gave all out support to the plan. But the Indian National Congress directly opposed the plan, while the All-India Muslim League leader M.A.Jinnah said, "We have no objection if the Congress agreed." In fact, it was Jinnah's  political tricks.
However, Sarat Bose returning from Delhi in a statement blamed Congress for failure of the plan (Ref: Ausham apto Atmajiboni by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman). Pakistan came into being in August 1947. But the central government exposed their colonial approach towards East Bengal right from the beginning. M.A Jinnah strongly advocated for Urdu as the State language of Pakistan which the people of East Bengal never expected.
Tamaddun Majlish, a socio-cultural organisation, began to create public opinion in favour of Bengali. The Majlish and the East Pakistan Muslim Students League in a joint meeting declared March 11, 1948 as 'Bhasha Dibosh'. The programme was successful, marking the emergence of a sovereign state in East Bengal.
Pakistan Awami Muslim League was formed in 1949 with Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasani as President, Shamsul Haque as Secretary and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as  Joint Secretary. This party later under the leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman  guided the nation to independence.
Swadhin BangIa Nucleus Cell was formed in 1962 with Sirajul Alam Khan, Kazi Aref Ahmad and Abdur Razzaq. They believed that the independence of Bangladesh was possible only through armed revolution. The cell's slogan was "Bir Bangali Ostro Dhoro Bangladesh Swadhin koro" (Courageous Bengalis! Take up arms and make Bangladesh independent).
 In February 1966, Sheikh Mujib placed his famous Six Points at a round table conference held in Lahore. The political leaders from all over Pakistan assembled there to discuss the latest political development and future plan to restore democratic rule in Pakistan. The Six Points ushered in a new era in the history of Bangladesh. The Movement for full autonomy began. The main features of Six -Points were:
1. Pakistan shall be a federal State according to the minutes of the Lahore Resolution, with Parliamentary form of the government. All elections are to be held on the basis of the adult franchise, with sovereign power in the hands of the Legislature.
2. The central government shall look after the foreign affairs and the defence only, while the regional governments will take care of all other ministries.
3. There shall be two separate but easily exchangeable currencies, or two reserve banks in case of single currency, keeping a provision in the Constitution, banning flight of capital from East Pakistan to West Pakistan.
4. All powers to fix and collect taxes shall be in the hands of the regional governments. The regional governments will deposit a part of the revenues in the federal account. In this context, there shall be a provision in the Constitution, bindings on the regional governments. The deposited amount shall be treated as federal government's assets to meet its expenditures.
5. There shall be two separate foreign currency accounts under the control of the regional governments, which will equally deposit a part in the federal account, as per provision incorporated or to be incorporated in the Constitution. The regional governments will have power to send economic, commerce and trade delegations abroad with power to sign agrrements with any country of the world.     "
6. There shall be a militia force equipped with modern and sophisticated arms in East Pakistan.
Sheikh Mujib said, I have placed Six Points in the interest of farmers, workers and exploited classes of the country. The Six Points are Charter of economic freedom only. It is not against the national integrity, but to save the exploited class.
Alarmed by Sheikh Mujib's  popularity, the government filed a case called the Agartala Conspiracy case implicating 34 people, including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Lieutenant Commander Moazzem Hossain of Pakistan Navy. The students community's 11 points movement, the mass uprising on February 24, the killing of Sergeant Zahurul Haque of Pakistan Army in Dhaka Cantonment and Dr Shamsuzzoha, Reader of Rajshahi University in Rajshahi, the proclamation of Martial Law in 1969, the General Election 1970 and the landslide victory of Awami League changed the course of history.
Amid debate whether to take part in the general election under Legal Framework Ordinance (LFO) in December 1970, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman decided to contest and won 167 seats out of 300 in the National Assembly and 288 out of 300 in the Provincial Assembly. President Yahya Khan congratulated Sheikh Mujibur Rahman saying  Mr Prime Minister.
But in Pakistan, everything did not work in accordance with the wishes of the people. The civil and the military bureaucrats, the bourgeoisie, the rightwing reactionary, the ultra left and the fanatics rallied round Z.A.Bhutto, Chairman of Pakistan People's Party, which captured 88 seats in the National Assembly. Bhutto threatened of collapsing West Pakistan from Khyber to Karachi if President Yahya Khan remained firm to hold the National Assembly session. President Yahya Khan postponed the National Assembly session scheduled for March 2, 1971 citing security reason.
In this situation, Shiekh Mujibur Rahman called for the nationwide hartal on March 3 and onwards and said that he would address the nation on March 7.
Instantly the people of East Pakistan rose in protest and raised slogans: Songhotir Mathay Lathi Maro, Bangladesh Swadhin koro (Smash the root of solidarity and make Bangladesh an independent country). Shahjahan Siraj, General Secretary of East Pakistan Students League read out the 'Manifesto of Independence' on March 2 on the Dhaka University campus. The following day, the then DUCSU VP ASM Abdur Rab hoisted the flag of Bangladesh at the same venue in presence of thousands of students.
Addressing a mammoth rally on March 7 in 1971 in Dhaka,  Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called for independence  of East Pakistan (henceforth Bangladesh). In truth, the 7th March speech was the guideline of our freedom and henceforth the day should be recognised as the 'Independence Day' or at least the 'Bangladesh Day'.
From this day, Bangladesh was a de facto sovereign and independent country and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the Administrator.
The Army crack down began on the night of March 26, but faced strong resistance from the East Bengal Regiment (EBR), the East Pakistan Rifles (EPR) and the East Pakistan  Police (EPP). Rajarbagh Police Lines and  the EPR headquarters at Peelkhana were the first targets.
Although the Pakistan Government arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from his Dhanmandi residence on the night of March 26, he was present in the heart of every man and woman of this land, and his March 7 speech was the guideline of War for Independence of Bangladesh.
On April 17, the Bangladesh government was formed at Mujibnagar with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as President, Syed Nazrul Islam as Acting President and Tajuddin Ahmad as Prime Minister. The three other members of the council of ministers were Captain Mansur Ali, Khondoker Mushtaque and AHM Qumruzzaman.
The country was also divided into nine sectors under military officers in order to carry on war for independence of Bangladesh. The sector commanders were Major Ziaur Rahman (later President of Bangladesh) and Major Rafiqul Islam of Sector-I, Major Khaled Mosharraf of Sector-2, Major Shafiullah of Sector-3, Major C.R.Dutta of Sector-4, Major Mir Swakat  Ali of Secrtor-5, Major AK.M. Nazmul Haque of Sector-6, Major Abu Osman of Sector-7, Major M.A Jalil of Sector-8 and Major Abu Taher of Sector-9.
Besides, Major Ziaur Rahman, Major Khaled Mosharraf and Major Shafiullah had three special brigades. Tangail's Abdul Kader Siddiqui also constituted a guerilla  unit to fight.
Sheikh Majibur Rahman was out and out nationalist, as was Dr. Ahmad Soekarno of Indonesia and Dr. San Yat Sen of China. But he transformed the War of Independence into People's war. That was his rare success.

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

City »

Bangladesh Sammilita Peshajibi Parishad formed a human chain in front of the Jatiya Press Club on Wednesday demanding unconditional release and proper treatment of Begum Khaleda Zia.


Editorial »

Public money and gold are not safe, it is a national disgrace


Bangladesh Bank on Tuesday refuted the allegation that one of the gold bars kept in its highly secured vault by the customs department was adulterated. Following a report published by a vernacular daily that quoted Customs Intelligence Investigation Department report, the central bank comes up with the observation that "the ...

Football »

French World Cup victors show triumph of diversity: Obama


AFP, Johannesburg :Former US president Barack Obama on Tuesday singled out the African heritage of many players in France's World Cup-winning football team in a speech paying tribute to Nelson Mandela.Speaking in Johannesburg to mark 100 years since Mandela's birth, Obama said that embracing diversity "delivers practical benefits since it ...

Football »

Maurizio Sarri, the new Chelsea soccer team manager, holds up a jersey during a press conference for his official presentation at Stamford Bridge stadium in London on Wednesday.


Entertainment »

Former supermodel Tapur Chatterji turns entrepreneur


In the ever-changing landscape of contemporary times, there’s more career crossover now than ever before. Granddaughter of veteran film director Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Tapur Chatterji who made a mark as of India’s most formative supermodels in 90’s has recently forayed into design and interiors and launched her own entrepreneur outfit. With ...

International »

Thai cave boys leave hospital ahead of press conference


AFP :Twelve boys and their football coach who survived a highly dangerous and dramatic rescue from a flooded Thai cave were discharged from hospital Wednesday ahead of a press conference where they will tell their incredible story for the first time.An AFP correspondent on the scene saw the team, who ...

Entertainment »

Elnaaz surprised by Salman -Katrina controversy about Sacred Games


Actress Elnaaz Norouzi is surprised that there is a controversy about the characters of Karan Wahi and her in the Netflix series Sacred Games. The characters are alleged to have taken inspiration from real life incidents in Salman Khan and his ex-girlfriend Katrina Kaif's real lives.  "While shooting the episodes, ...

Entertainment »

Vidya Balan is all set to play her first Telugu film!


One can't refute the fact that Vidya Balan is one of the most versatile actresses in Indian Cinema today. The National Award Winning actress has never shied away from going off the beaten track and picking up complex and challenging roles. Needless to say, she has effortlessly nailed them all ...

Football »

Mbappe to donate US $500,000 World Cup winnings to charity


Sports Desk :French teenage sensation Kylian Mbappe will be donating his entire World Cup earnings to a charity that organises sporting events for children with disabilities.The 19-year-old reportedly earned about US$22,300 per game in the tournament and an additional US$350,000 for helping his country lift the World Cup trophy on ...

Editorial »

Trump‘s behaviour in meeting with Putin regarded as disgraceful


US President Donald Trump has defended Russia over claims of interference in the 2016 presidential election. After face-to-face talks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, Mr Trump contradicted US intelligence agencies and said there had been no reason for Russia to meddle in the vote, as per international media reports.Mr Putin ...

City »

BNP Standing Committee member Dr Khondkar Mosharraf Hossain speaking at an opinion sharing meeting on 'Role of Present Election Commission and Blue Print of the Government' organised by Bangladesh Youth Forum at the Jatiya Press Club on Tuesday.


International »

No reason to believe Russia behind election meddling


Reuters, Helsinki :U.S. President Donald Trump emerged from a meeting with Vladimir Putin on Monday saying he saw no reason to believe Russia had hacked the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and the Russian leader "was extremely strong and powerful" in denying it.Trump held his meeting just days after a special ...

International »

US, North Korea hold 'productive' talks on war remains: Pompeo


AP, Seoul :U.S. and North Korean officials held "productive" talks Sunday to discuss the return of U.S. service members' remains missing since the Korean War, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said.Pompeo, who was not part of the talks, said in a statement that working level meetings between U.S. and ...

Business & Economy »

American Tony Roma now in Dhaka


Business Desk :America's most favorite ribs & steak chain "Tony Roma's" opened officially in Bangladesh on Monday.The first flagship outlet was launched at the most aristocratic zone in the city, NEB (3B), Road#74, Gulshan-2 in Dhaka. US Ambassador to Bangladesh Marcia Bernicat attended the function as the chief guest.Tony Roma's ...

Editorial »

Govt`s pragmatic step is needed to save Bangladesh from adverse impact of global warming


A RECENT study has shown that Bangladesh is among the countries 'most at risk' as over one billion people in the world are lack of air conditioning and refrigeration to keep them cool and to preserve food and medicines while global warming increasing temperatures. More electricity demand for fridges, fans ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news