Debdulal Karmaker :
This article explores the practice strategies and the roles of social institutions to deal with a new opportunity to promote and protect devastation of drug abuser and addicts. State and civil society's aim is to improve social control through drug de-addiction program. Nevertheless expected goal is disappeared and the number of illicit drug users has been increasing fatally. Consequently crime and criminal behaviour increases in harmony with growing addiction. In view of social control and national interest it is necessary to explain how to abstain from drug addiction and illicit drug use that reduces crime and saves our future nation. In view of social control, The Government has enacted The Narcotics control act 1990 that adopted a treatment and rehabilitation program for drug addicted people. Unfortunately in recent years the growing number of drug addicts appears terrifically. According to the statistical report of International Center for Prison Studies, the number of confined prisoners in Bangladesh is 79280. Every year large number of drug addicts has been arrested inconnection with substance abuse and illegal drug offence. Under this circumstance this article identifies the reason of drug addiction and drug violent crime of prisoners in Bangladesh and defines prevention strategy in Prison which may be a correctional continuum.
Illicit drug using is one of the major problems in our society. The statistical report of GO and international organization implies vulnerable social stigma to our country. The Department of Narcotics Control of Bangladesh (DNC) estimated that in 2016 total accused by all agencies for illegal drug use was 87014 including DNC operation, Trial cases and Mobile court. They seized huge quantity of drug substance every year including Yabba tablet, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, morphine injection etc. This report appears to show a small number of crimes in comparison with formal crime. Because there is a hidden figure of unrecorded drug inducing interpersonal violence. People experience that illegal drug using is dangerous, harmful and punishable. Notwithstanding they may include drug using as well as drug related violence and crime. It has been observed that drug is a major problem with all aspect of sustainable social development stated on world drug report 2016 by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
All of us explain the vulnerable situation of health, social, economical impact resulting from drug addiction. In practical we need to explain why people become drug addicted that arouses social and interpersonal problem. Some studies tried to explore the etiology of drug addiction through Biosociology, clinical psychology, Sociology of Deviance, Biosocial criminological perspective etc.and proposed a treatment strategy. Yet the number of drug addicts is increasing day by day. Drug addiction induces interpersonal violence, Murder, forcible rape, women repression, theft etc. including formal and informal criminal behavior organized 'the risky society'. To protect and control our society against drug violence, The Narcotics Control Act has suggested prevention policy and program. UNODC also proposedtreatment, care, rehabilitation and social integration. And Prisonsin Bangladesh are now-a-days may be considered correctional institutions regardingprevention of drug addiction and reformation of drug related criminal .Today it is the right time to introduce interventional policy in prison considering biological, psychological and social/environmental factor which seeks to promote abstinence, reducing augmentation to addiction and craving of drug dependence.
This study is based on observational research model and secondary data. This observation follows nonparticipant research method. In this study individual sampling and event sampling is followed to identify addict's behaviour through case study of addicts and drug related criminal.
Case study - 1: Raihan is confined to a prison for drug addiction. Before coming to prison, he was sent to rehabilitation centre and correctional home several times. At that time he wanted to abstain himself from drug addiction through treatment. Nevertheless he became readdict some days later. During his childhood he was excellent. Suddenly he lost his attention to individual discipline.
His parents brought him to a correction centre. His abnormality was beyond expectation. His behavior was being maladjusted because of anxiety, depression, mental retardation for which no physical basis could he found. Raihan started drinking alcohol and using illicit drug. Subsequently, he found himself a serious drug addict involved in a lifestyle of deviance, antisocial or criminal in a dangerous and risky way. He surrendered to his parents to keep him well. Parents decided to send him to prison for the treatment of drug addiction effectively.
Case study - 2: Shyamol is a graduate. He is looking for a suitable job. He observed his neighbour occupied huge wealth but most of people do not know his business. Shyamol wants to be rich. He seeks how to earn more and more money. He found his neighbour engaged in drug selling. He wanted handsome money without illegal job. He always obeys social norms. He knows drug selling is the violation of norm. In spite of that his neighbor is doing norm less business but became a wealthy member of society who possesses everything. Although it is dangerous and humiliating, Shyamol involved himself with illicit drugbusiness. Within some days he explores himself as a rich man as well as serious drug addict.
Case study -3: Jebu was confined in a prison in connection with illegal drug business. He was sentenced for one year. Five years ago he was doing work of daily wage. Suddenly a relative influenced him taking heroin. Day by day he was being addicted. He was doing not his work but he desired to have a wealthy life by hook or by crook. He decided doing illegal drug business. He earned a lot of money but police arrested him in connection with law violating job and sent him to prison.
The descriptions above are not stories. They imply a social sketch of drugaddicts spectrum. Drug using, Drug dependence come from the influence of addiction. These stories of drug users make some significant questions. Why are some people being drug addicted? Why do people take drugs? Why are some people being these deviant? The people obviously know the consequences of drug addiction along with drug career, the physical hazard, legal problem, social or interpersonal disorders etc. Nevertheless, what influences are their chances of being drug addicts and criminal career?
Illegal drug using, selling, trafficking comes from the influence of drug addiction. George koob defined drug addiction as " Drug addiction also known as substance dependence is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by (1) a compulsion to seek and take the drug, (2) loss of control in limiting intake and (3) emergence of a negative state (e.g. dysphoria, anxiety, irritability ) when access to the drug prevented ( defined here as dependence). Sociologist and Psychologist still consider addiction as a brain disease. Sullivan narrated "The broadening of the meaning of addiction is part of growing fad to medicalise much different behavior. Drink too much? It's a disease. The child of an alcoholic? You have a disease. Overeat or gamble? Both diseases. Sex obsesses? Definitely disease."
Etiology of drug addiction is related to biological, sociocultural, psychological factor etc. Paul Benett, a clinical psychologist, stated of genetic factors of addiction that "Biological studies have in fact implicated a number of Genes in the process of addiction." The Diagnostic and statistical Manual IV (DSM IV) defined addiction as a mental health disorder named substance related disorder (i.e. alcohol related disorder, caffeine related disorder).The Biosocial, Anthony Walashstated it as "Biologically informed environmental" and that approach discusses both biological and environmental risk factor. For example RewardDomonance and Prefrontal Dysfunction Theories specify addiction and criminal behavior. As Gove and Wilmath argues that "The Behavioral Activating System (BAS) combined with a faulty Behavioral Inhibition system (BIS) leads to an impulsive person with a 'craving brain' that can lead him into all sorts of physical, social, moral and legal difficulties, by becoming addicted to pleasure such as sex, alcohol, drugs and even risky endeavor such as crime. Addiction represents two vulnerable problems; one is individual health and second is family and social development. It is very important to reach a clear conception of which disorders make addiction and that inspires to commit crime. Through case study 1, 2& 2, it has been observed that individual disorder and environment basis factor constitute addiction. Moreover violating social norm, values and reinforcement to greediness leads to becoming criminal. However analyzing these concept of being addicts and criminal, this article tries to develop a treatment procedure in prison. Biosocial framework suggests a treatment or prevention strategy for coping with addiction career and career with crime. It has three dimensions; Motivational, Behavioral and Pharmacological.
Jail Code and Prison Management for Correction and Rehabilitation of addicts:
Social control and punishment of crime makes a bridge through Prison. Deviant behavior of drug addicts violates government enacted law and consequently they must be segregated in the prison. Prison of Bangladesh is governed by Bengal jail code appeared in 1864. Reformation, rehabilitation discipline, moral education, treatment of confined prisoner are guided by Bengal jail code related to The Prison Act, The Reformatory School Act, Treatment of Lunatics Rules, The Bengal Borstal School Act, The Factories Act etc. Jail code provides education, religious practices, industrial training to the prisoner. As for example, Simple handicraft making will be taught to the prisoner with view to honesty life after leaving jail. Moral instruction to prisoners and religious practice induces self-control that motivates interpersonal condition. Moreover, literacy program, entertaining games, group setting lyrical music, creative book reading competition are continued in prison over the past few years. Recently Drug addiction curative center are established in prisons of Bangladesh with the supervision of Syed Iftekhar Uddin, honorable IG prisons of Bangladesh. In spite of that some jails reform research stated the lack of adequacy in reformation strategies.
Roadmap of treatment plan in prison for addicted prisoner: Contemporary treatment plan of addiction is limited to drug therapy for withdrawal symptom, Mindfulness meditation, behavior therapy, etc. It has been observed that treatment policy can only manage dependence on drugs. Successful treatment strategy become effective with a total change of life circumstances beyond the control of the addict.Alan Lesher declared 'Addiction is a brain disease and it matters.' Marshal B clinard stated Addiction results from a complex process involving sociological and psychological influences. Considering the pathology of addiction, treatment policy maybe reformed considering Biological, psychological, socio environmental factor.Addicted inmates should receive treatment and clinical intervention describe bellow:
Pharmacological: Addiction disorder treatment is limited to the cure of severe withdrawal symptom. Sedative and addiction deterring medicine should be apply to addicts. In recent small number of medications are provided for reducing addiction to substance.
Music Therapy: Music therapy is a clinical program on focusing emotional and psychological development. Its definition includes behavioural music therapy, psychotherapeutic music therapy, and educational music therapy and so on. It is an interventional program between music and mind with psychotic patient.
Social Treatment: Addiction and crime are reformed by illegal interpersonal violence. Treatment should be introduced for coping withinterpersonal violence. Social treatment is necessary to the addicted prison inmates. The strategy of intervention to prisoner through social treatment will improve individual mood coping with social and personal problems. Social treatments carry out interventional and clinical treatment such as cognitive behavioral method, crisis intervention, family life education, Gestalt therapy, group therapy, life skill counseling etc.
Skill Development Program: Some studies observed that low level skill or unskilled people involved themselves to illegal drug business. Somewhere unemployed people involve drug addiction due to socio-economic stress. To remove financial difficulties, decent works that are productive should be providing to addicted prisoner.
Relaxation and Meditation: Anxiety, depression, socio economic disorder increase addiction to illegal drugs. Relaxation techniques can prepare a person to cope with times of greater tension. Meditation especially mindfulness trains our mind to became aware of psychotic disorder. It reduces severe depression, emotional maladjustment and enhance coping with difficult situation in addicts life.
In this article the case study of observational research has been analyzed through the contemporary theory of drug addiction and crime career. Government enacted law in view of reducing this deviant trend. When people violate law, legal system imposes punishment and send them to the prison. Prison may be very convenient for those who are suffering with socially undesirable lifestyle but seek to abstain themselves from drug addiction. It has been observed that a large number of drug addicts and career with crime are confined in prison every year. Prison may be a correctional continuum through interventional strategies that reduces addiction and crime. Generally people identify prison with their ordinary looking. In spite of that a comprehensive treatment policy would be effective to those deviant who seek abstinence, eliminating addiction, prevention of craving of drug dependence etc through the interventional and clinical program in prison premises. (shortened)
(Author's identity: Jailer, Naogoan District Jail)