Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Wednesday, January 16, 2019 01:05:42 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Extensive Influence of Iranian Literature

photo by

By
08th-Jun-2018       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Moniruddin Yusuf :
Bengal borrowed different systems of education and learning from Iran. We propose here to see the extensive influence of Iranian literatures and her poets in Bangladesh. Poetry and literary tradition that Iran left for us as a heritage, was more important than any other single factor in the field of culture. This tradition penetrated through the entire population of Bengal irrespective of high and low polished and boorish. Iranian literature sophisticated the Bengali people whether they are educated or uneducated to the extent that even a rural agriculturist or a small trader or a peddler could own the finest human sentiment and be aesthetically uplifted alike.
The reason for this extensive influence of Iranian literature was its correspondence with the advent of Islam. When Islam entered Bengal, this part of the sub-continent had no national language. The dialect spoken by the local people of Bangladesh was looked down upon by the ruling Brahmanical class. And so it was not sufficiently developed to contain any high thought or noble sentiment.
Equality of man and the Oneness of the Deity preached by Islam, presented an ideal that made the people of Bengal taste a culture befitting humanity. On that stage of development Iranian poetry and literature were ready for the consumption of Bengali people. In this way the start of our cultural commerce began with Iran. We were fortunate enough to have our language in such a formative stage that Iran could not but serve our purpose so amply and so nicely.
During the years of eleventh century, Iranian poetry entered the sphere of Anwari and Firdousi and by the next two centuries poets like Nizami, Omar Khaiyam and Sa'di lived and worked there. Muslims conquered Bengal in the thirteenth century A.D. and the influx of their coming remained unhindered for centuries hence.
From the very beginning, Muslim rulers and their followers patronized the education in Bengal. Imported centers of education were established in Lacknowti, Pandua, Darasbari, Rangpur, Chittagong, Sylhet and Sonargaon. It is told that in Bengal, a self supporting madrassa did not exist.
Education and learning are basements for erecting the edifice of aesthetic structures. The strong basements were the practical lives that held in enduring edifices. Muslims of Bangal, through education, fortified their cultural life and prepared themselves for absorbing the influence of Iranian literature.
The spirit of Islam preached by Sufis and Sufi poets of Iran formed the conventional society in Bengal. The great Hindu poet Chandidas wrote lines edifying the dignity of man in his verses, the like of which were not to be found in Hindu literature. This spirit of the dignity of man was contagious for the Baishnavas and Baishnava poets alike.
Stories concerning the worship and adoration of Gods and Goddesses were gradually supplanted by sorrows and happiness of practical man. Human interest grew in Bengali literature through the transitions and adaptations of Iranian literature. First of this kind was 'Yusuf-Zuleikha' by Shah Muhammad Saghir. 'Yusuf-Zuleikha' was written by Poet Firdousi. The story of Yusuf was taken from the Quran. The Quran terms it as the most beautiful story. Restraint of a practical man and Prophet Yusuf is the central theme of the story. Quran does not name the heroine of the story as Zuleikha. She was termed as 'Imratul Aziz'.
One of the most powerful writers of the Bengali medieval period was Daulat Qazi. He wrote a romantic episodic poetry named 'Lor Chondrani'. The story element of that book was taken from Hindi. This was nothing but the imitation of human interest in episode that was practiced by Iranian stalwarts like Nizami and others. Story of Lor Chondrani is this:
King of Gohari, Lor had a beautiful consort named Moinamoti. Husband and wife were happy. One day a traveling mendicant appeared. He showed the king Lor a portrait of princess Chondrani and informed the king that the princess was not unmarried but her husband was a hermaphrodite. The princess absolutely deserved the king. At the words of mendicant, Lor was so amorous that he left for Mohradesh to gain Chondrani. Lor fought with the hermaphrodite husband of Chondrali and defeated him. The desired union of Lor-Chondrani happened. Lor passed time in Mohradesh with princess Chondrani. In this side a son of the neighboring king heard the physical and mental beauty of Mainamati and sent panderers to enchant her. The panderers tried her best, but Mainamati did not agree to the proposal. So sent a parrot with the help of a Brahmin to Lor. With the dexterity of the Brahmin and the message delivered by the parrot, the bye gone memory of Lor reappeared. King Lor returned with Chondrani to Moinamati bearing the kingdom to his son. Reunion of Lor occurred with Moinamati.
This was the etnsodic beauty of Sufistic Iran. The real Sufism is not against the spirit of Islam. So, Lor returned to his previous lawful wife with Chondrani, the second lawful wife. He did not leave her there. Muslim, in the spiritual advancement, should not give up his lawful earthy possessions.
It is to be remembered that on the rural poets of Bengal the direct influence of Iranian literature was not possible. The influence generated through the cultural sphere of the Muslim society. So, in rural episodic poetry Gods and Goddesses did not generate pathetic origination. Instead, man and woman played their parts humanly. Realistic tendency entered the story-element of Bengali poetry. We experienced in Bengali literature the current stream of events. The sixteenth century poet Mukundram Chakraborty wrote in his 'Chondi Mongol' the current lives of Hindu-Muslim societies. His realistic delimitation was an indirect influence of practical ways of life scattered by the Muslims all around.
Stories of 'Mymensingh Geetika' and 'Purbo Bongo Geetika' were written from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. The episodic poetries were written by Hindus and Muslims alike.
Dr Dinesh Chandra Sen in the introductory words of his valuable collection of 'Mymensingh Geetika' writes, the reign of eastern Mymensingh from the ancient Sena dynasty was out of the reach of Brahmanical order. So in the episodes of seventeenth and even the eighteenth centuries, we do not find any influence of Brahmanical or Sanskrit imitation. This region was not like other areas of Bengal. The rigidity of fanatic scriptures could not bind the women folk of this area and therefore we find in these 'Geetikas' the heroines are open minded and practically free and their romantic love so deep and humane.
Dr Sen is very true in his remarks. But the reason he mention is not so correct. It was not the absence of the rigidity of Brahmanical scripture that made the woman folk of that region so affectionate and romantically so deep and impregnated with imaginative faculties. The episodes of 'Geetika' were out and out human. They are of the same family of Iranian romances of 'Shireen Khosru,' 'Laila Mojnoon' and others.
One of the tragic episodes of 'Geetika' is known as 'Mohua.' The French novelist Romain Rolland has spoken very highly of it.
The story narrates a band of gypsy men and women roamed about and used to exhibit circus shows. Among them Mahua was a very beautiful girl, who could show exquisite physical exercises within the circus.
One day the band of gypsies arrived at a village where a rich Brahmin family lived. The leader of the gypsy group Homra asked the permission of the mother of the Brahmin to show the circus.
Being permitted, Homra asked his band to start the show. The physical exercise of Mohua enchanted the young Brahmin, Nadiarchand. He gave the gypsies various gifts and at the end helped them to own houses with plots of land. The gypsies were glad and they lived there happily.
One day in the evening Nadiarchand saw Mohua coming back after performing show business and asked her to see him next at the bathing ghat alone at dusk. Next day, Mahua kept her words and went to the particular place in an appointed time to see the Brahmin.
The dialogue between hero and heroine on the bathing ghat was so enchanting that this crude and indigenous background caused anyone to forget the whereabouts and aesthetically roused him to a high level of romantic love.
Here asks Mohua: '(Oh, the beautiful damsel, you are fetching water in your pitcher. Do you remember what I told you yesterday?
Mahua replies: Hear oh Youngman of foreign land, hear me, What did you say yesterday, I do not remember.
Nadiarchand retorts: Oh! damsel of coming age, your mind is prone to forgetfulness. So, you have forgotten in a night a weighty word conveyed to you.
Mohua answers with her head down:  Oh! you are a foreign man and I am a different woman, I die in shamefulness to talk to you.
Nadiarchand consoles Mohua and ensure her of the situation: Filling your pitcher oh beautiful damsel and rippling water with it, Shy don't you talk with smiling face; there is none here with me.
And Nadiarchand asks the acquaintance of the girl: Who is your mother, girl, and who is your father, where had you been since you came here?
Mohua expresses her helplessness and unfamiliarity and replies: I have no mother and father, no brother born of the same mother, I am a moss in the stream and go on over afloat. And then Mohua relates her own circumstances to Nadiarchand: It was predestined, so I roam about with the gypsies, and bum myself with the flame of mine.
There is no sympathetic soul in this country to whom should I express myself.
Say, who will realize the grief of my burning heart? Oh the young Brahmin, you are happily turning with your beautiful consort. In your own house, the condition congenial to you. The Brahmin says, oh the virgin. you are stone hearted, you utter a lie, I am not yet married.
Mohua retorts: Your parents are hard-hearted and you too are stone, so, much a youthful time of life passes in vain.
Yes, my parents are hard-hearted and myself too is so, If I get a bride like you, I do it instantly.
Oh, shameless Brahmin, you are devoid of any bashfulness, Let the person die with the pitcher entangled in your neck. Oh, the beautiful bride, where should I get pitcher and where to find rope, You yourself become deep river and I plunge to die into your water.
Before we proceed to tragic consequences of the story, let us see this romantic situation of an episode of 'Shahnama' by Firdausi and compare the similarity of effect produced there aesthetically.
Hero of the episode of Shahnama, Zal has come to see Rudaba in a moonlit night. From a lofty balcony Rudaba announced felicitation for Zal. The hero with the name of 'Yazdan' expresses his legitimate hope: I pray that God in His bounty show me your face in seclusion. Valiant Zal asks Rudaba how he will ascend the high rampart and reach her.
Skillful Rudaba causes to bring down her long tress as a ladder to be climbed by Zal, Rudaba asks: Now quickly come and gird up your loves one and try yourself with thy lions valour and claws of Kayani strength.
Contd on page 9

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Editorial »

Don't waste public money in the name of development projects


A Bridge built 22 years ago over a canal at Chilarkandi village in Moulvibazar's Kulaura upazila remains unused as it has no approach roads. The incident may be cited as a bright example of lack of coordination among the relevant departments and total waste of public money. The 12-metre long ...

Sports »

Ukraine's Dayana Yastremska (left) is congratulated by Australia's Samantha Stosur after winning their first round match at the Australian Open tennis championships in Melbourne, Australia on Tuesday.


Sports »

Serena Williams returns to Australian Open with emphatic win


AP, Melbourne :Serena Williams jumped straight back in where she left off at the Australian Open, returning for the first time since winning the title in 2017 when she was pregnant with her first child.Williams conceded only five points in the first set and was completely clinical in a 6-0, ...

International »

Iran satellite, that US was wary about, fails to reach orbit


AFP, Tehran  :Iran launched a satellite criticised by the United States on Tuesday but it failed to reach orbit, state television quoted the telecommunications minister as saying."The Payam satellite was successfully launched this morning with the Basir satellite carrier. But the satellite unfortunately failed to be placed in orbit in ...

International »

Model claiming Trump's 'Russia secret' goes to trial over "sex scandal"


AFP, Pattaya :A Belarusian model who sensationally claimed she had proof of Russian efforts to help Donald Trump win office appeared in court Tuesday for the expected start of her trial over running a "sex training course" in Thailand.Anastasia Vashukevich, known by her pen name Nastya Rybka, has been held ...

City »

Nepalese envoy makes farewell call on PM


Outgoing ambassador of Nepal to Bangladesh Prof. Dr. Chop Lal Bhusal and his spouse made a farewell call on Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her office here on Tuesday.  Dr Bhusal thanked the Prime Minister for her government's support in discharging his duties in Bangladesh. He particularly recalled the support ...

Entertainment »

Apurba, Safa Kabir in Nazia Hasan’s story


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Safa Kabir and Apurba worked together as a pair in Valentine’s Day special play titled Tumi Bolley. Story of the play was written by Apurba’s wife Nazia Hasan Adity for the first time.Apurba and Safa played in roles of Aayan and Hridita respectively in this romantic story ...

Cricket »

Olivier sparks South Africa to sweep of Pakistan


Duanne Olivier sparked a Pakistan collapse as South Africa completed a series clean sweep with a 107-run win on the fourth day of the third and final Test at the Wanderers Stadium on Monday.Starting the day on 153 for three, Pakistan lost their remaining seven wickets for 120 runs to ...

Sports »

Emotional Wozniacki launches Australian Open defence


Caroline Wozniacki fought back tears after launching her Australian Open defence with a convincing 6-3, 6-4 win over Alison Van Uytvanck of Belgium on Monday.The third seed won her maiden Slam at Melbourne Park last year but has since been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, a debilitating auto-immune disease that has ...

City »

Jatiya Press Club President Saiful Alam along with other journalists' leaders greet newly appointed Information Minister Dr Hasan Mahmud with bouquet at the Jatiya Press Club on Monday.


Editorial »

Unplanned sand extraction from rivers to trigger mighty erosion


UNABATED sand lifting from the Dhaleshwari River in Tangail could result in losing vast locality to river erosion. Dhaleshwari, a tributary of the Jamuna, flows through Tangail Sadar and the influential sand traders with illicit nexus with political high-ups are using powerful dredging machines to lift sand near Porabari Bazar ...

International »

Turkey hits back at Trump threats over Kurds


AFP :Turkey on Monday vowed to keep up the fight against a US-backed Kurdish militia it views as terrorists after Donald Trump warned of economic devastation if Ankara attacks Kurdish forces as American troops withdraw.Trump's threat came after Ankara repeatedly threatened a new cross-border operation against the Kurdish People's Protection ...

Entertainment »

I am ok with my attention grabbing assets: Anveshi Jain


ALT Balaji’s Gandii Baat, seems to have hit it out of the park once again. Season 2 was applauded for it's out of the box content, striking performances, and enrapturing screenplay. But overshadowing every good thing about the show, the leaked lesbian lovemaking scene between Anveshi Jain and Flora Saini ...

Sports »

Serena shooting for Slam history


AFP, Melbourne :Serena Williams has adopted a low profile ahead of the Australian Open, but rival players admit the American's shadow looms large in Melbourne as she eyes a record-equalling 24th Grand Slam crown.Williams won her 23rd title and seventh at Melbourne Park while eight weeks pregnant two years ago, ...

Cricket »

India call up Shankar, Gill to replace suspended pair


India Sunday called up all-rounder Vijay Shankar and batsman Shubman Gill for their Australia and New Zealand tours after KL Rahul and Hardik Pandya were ordered home in disgrace over comments made about women. Rahul and Pandya were axed ahead of India's opening one-day international against Australia in Sydney on ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news