Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Sunday, March 24, 2019 09:54:17 AM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Fight against drug consumption needs gender specific treatments

By
04th-Jul-2018       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Carmen Arroyo and Emily Thampoe :
The World Drug Report 2018, launched this week by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), highlighted the importance of gender in drug consumption and behaviour, suggesting it is essential to provide different types of health-care and legal solutions.
Only one in five women addicts seeks treatment for drug abuse, the president of the International Narcotics Board (INCB) has warned. Credit: UN Photo/D. Gair
As Marie Nougier, Head of Research and Communications at the International Drug Policy Consortium (IDPC) told IPS: "There is certainly no one-size-fits-all strategy towards drug use - there should be a range of evidence-based prevention, harm reduction, treatment and other health and social support services that are able to respond to the many problems women may face when using drugs".
About 5.6% of the global population between 15 and 64 years old -275 million people- used drugs during 2016, according to the report. From those, 31 million suffer from drug disorders, which means that they need treatment.
However, drug treatments are only reaching one sixth of drug consumers. The consequences are terrible, with 450,000 people dying in 2015 due to drug consumption. What's more, global opium production increased by 65% from 2016 to 2017, which is the highest estimate so far.
The report has been separated into five sections, the fifth being about the effect that gender has on drug usage, especially in terms of women. The others include information such as an executive summary, drug demand and supply, drug markets, and drugs and age.
The fifth report states that while women consume opioids and tranquilizers more often than men, they use more cannabis and cocaine. Despite women starting to consume substances later in life than men, they increase their intake of related drugs -alcohol, opioids and cocaine- faster than them.
Whereas women mostly associate drug consumption with an intimate partner, men tend to consume substances with other male friends. And while women tend to suffer more from depression, anxiety, or other mental health conditions, men suffer from externalized problems like conduct disorder, such as "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and antisocial personality disorder". These are some of the gender-based differences in drug consumption that the report points out, but what stands out most in terms of finding long-term solutions is that women "may also have experienced childhood adversity such as physical neglect, abuse or sexual abuse".
When this is coupled with strong drug policies, the result is a higher proportion of women sentenced for drug-related offences. Women are also shown to be more affected by post traumatic stress disorder.
Nougier from IDPC told IPS: "Drug policies focusing on punishing people for drug use have greatly contributed to drug-related health issues, including the spread of HIV and hepatitis C and overdose deaths, as the fear of arrest and punishment deters people from accessing the harm reduction and treatment services they may need".
She added: "Punitive approaches have also increased the levels of stigma and discrimination against people who use drugs". Additionally, according Nougier, punitive approaches tend to affect women more, as there are no treatment programs that include a gender approach. Their needs -due to their background and consumption behavior- are different.
Also "because of the gender inequalities that continue to prevail in our societies, with women facing significant stigma for breaking with the role of the 'good woman' or the 'good mother' for using drugs. In some countries, using drugs during pregnancy is a criminal offence, which acts as a serious barrier for women to seek prenatal healthcare support or drug services".
Kamran Niaz, epidemiologist at the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, told IPS that "women have better long-term outcomes when they receive treatments that focus on the issues more commonly found in women with drug use disorders compared to treatments that lack such a women-centred focus".
Asked about gender-specific treatments, Niaz added: "Prevention of drug use among girls/women requires investing in family-based prevention addressing vulnerabilities that appear to be unique to girls". He continued: "in order to address the issues of drug use disorders among women, treatment services and programmes should be tailored to the needs of women and pregnant women".
Some of the programmes that Niaz found specific for girls included: "dealing with stress, depression, social assertiveness, body image and improving relations and communication with parents and other significant others".
Pamela Kent, Associate Director of Research at the Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction (CCSA), told IPS: "A more informed and empathetic approach to women's substance use is required-one that also considers various aspects such as reproductive health, perinatal service and child welfare. It's important to note that not a one-size fits all-society needs to provide women-centered prevention and treatment resources and responses".
Regarding the relation between drug use and abuse, Niaz said: "As women with drug use disorders are more vulnerable to domestic violence and sexual abuse, and their children may also be at risk of abuse, a liaison with social agencies protecting women and children is helpful".
He added: "In addition in the case of child abuse we need programmes to prevent such abuse and, particularly, to support the victims and to address post-traumatic stress disorders among them". Kent agreed that abuse is a primary concern: "[The 2017 Life in Recovery from Addiction in Canada survey] showed that females reported greater family violence and untreated mental health concerns during addiction compared to males. In additional, for informal support, females more likely to use technology, connect with an animal, or use art, poetry, writing and yoga compared to males".
However, not many programs have been implemented that include this gender-based approach. The report adds that the criminal justice system is designed for male offenders and thus forgets any nuances that relate to women.
Nougier said: "We continue to see a concerning lack of access to treatment by women dependent on drugs, both in the community and in prison. Available services are generally designed by and for men, and are often unable to tailor to the specific needs faced by women. In closed settings, most harm reduction and treatment services are only available in male prisons".
Some facilities are starting to adapt themselves to these proven needs, according to Nougier. "Dome harm reduction and treatment facilities have adapted their services to better engage with women with specific opening hours for women only, a space for children while women come to the centre, and the provision gender-specific services (e.g. legal aid or support to respond to domestic violence, sexual and reproductive health support, etc.)", she said.
Niaz agreed that "the programmes need to manage the myriad of issues such patients face, and should encompass broader health, learning, and social welfare context in collaboration with family, schools and social services".

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Football »

England, France win big, Portugal held as Euro defense opens


AP, London :Big and slick wins for France and England. Not even a goal for Portugal.Even with Cristiano Ronaldo returning to the Portugal side for the first time since last year's World Cup, the European champions could only begin their title defense with a 0-0 home draw against Ukraine.The goals ...

Sports »

Serena survives scare to advance in Miami


AFP, Miami :Serena Williams survived an "irresponsible" second set lapse on Friday to see off Sweden's Rebecca Peterson 6-3, 1-6, 6-1 in her second-round opener of the WTA and ATP Miami Open."I wasn't really happy with my performance," admitted the 23-time Grand Slam champion, who is playing in just her ...

Entertainment »

I was lucky that it wasn't a dance-off - Alia Bhatt


An Abhishek Varman directorial, Kalank starring Alia Bhatt, Madhuri Dixit, Varun Dhawan, Aditya Roy Kapur, Sonakshi Sinha, and Sanjay Dutt has been making headlines ever since its announcement. It was just yesterday when the makers of the film dropped in the first song, titled Gharore pardesiya, featuring Alia and Madhuri ...

International »

Pope replaces Santiago bishop after abuse cover-up claims


Reuters, Vatican City :Pope Francis has accepted the resignation of Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati, the archbishop of Santiago and the highest ranking member of the Catholic Church in Chile, who has been caught up in the country's sex abuse scandal.A Vatican statement on Saturday said the pope had named Bishop Celestino ...

International »

May makes final push for Brexit deal with new timetable


Prime Minister Theresa May returns to Britain on Friday vowing to make "every effort" to win over MPs opposed to her EU divorce deal, hours after securing a delay to Brexit from European leaders in Brussels.The embattled premier faces daunting odds to persuade recalcitrant British lawmakers to back a plan ...

City »

Gonoforum President Dr. Kamal Hossain speaking at a press conference organised by Gonoforum at the Jatiya Press Club on Saturday demanding safe road.


Editorial »

Modernise the railways and make it corruption-free


BANGLADESH Railway has been showing less importance and interest to recover its grabbed lands though thousands of acres of land are now illegally possessed by a section of influential people and some organisations. It has also no visible plan to use many unused lands across the country too. An initiative ...

Editorial »

Save Halda from dying


DEPARTMENT of Environment has revealed that waste from a housing estate and some factories are polluting the Halda river in Chattogram to the extent that it caused dying of fish. Currently, the pollution of the Halda is severely affecting the livelihood of adjacent people, in particular the fishermen. In June ...

International »

Prince Charles heads to Cuba amid US tensions


AFP, Havana :Britain's Prince Charles and his wife Camilla will make the first royal visit to communist-run Cuba on Sunday at a time when ally Washington is seeking to ramp up sanctions against the island.The 70-year-old prince was asked by the British government to add Cuba to a long-planned tour ...

Football »

US beat Ecuador 1-0 in int’l friendly soccer


AP, Orlando :Gregg Berhalter's vision for the U.S. national team started to unfold as the Americans passed the ball from side to side, played diagonal balls long and short. Possession is his key to success.The style was more pleasing. But the only goal of night was pretty weird.Gyasi Zardes's shot ...

Entertainment »

Homayra Himu wants to give direction


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Five years ago, popular TV actress Homayra Himu produced a telefilm titled Bhalobashi Othoba Bashi Bhalo. But producing that telefilm she faced financial crisis during that time. She was sufferer for this and later decided not to produce any work. But she is interested to give direction ...

Sports »

Russia's Natalia Zabiiko and Alexander Enbert perform their pairs free skate during the ISU World Figure Skating Championships at Saitama Super Arena in Saitama, north of Tokyo on Thursday.


Football »

Trinidad and Tobago's Aubrey David (left) and Wales' Ryan Hedges battle for the ball during the International Friendly soccer match between Wales and Trinidad and Tobago, at the Racecourse Ground, in Wrexham, Wales on Wednesday.


Entertainment »

Deepika Padukone checks all ticks in list over a week


Bollywood’s leading lady Deepika Padukone has had an eventful last week as the actress unveiled her prestigious Statue of Purpose at Madame Tussauds and graced the Vogue International cover as the Global Talent. Both the events are key and one of the major highlights in the life of the actress. ...

City »

Holi festival celebrated with enthusiasm, fanfare


Thousands of devotees on Thursday celebrated the Holi, a Hindu religious festival of colours, across the country with due religious fervour and much enthusiasm."Marking the festival, a large number of devotees thronged the Dhakeswari National Temple in the morning to offer abir, a pink colored powder, at the foot of ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news