Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Monday, November 19, 2018 02:21:39 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Bangla literature through ages

Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Mohammad Daniul Huq and Aminur Rahman :

(From the previous issue)
The efforts at writing Bangla plays in the first phase on the basis of contemporary period and society continued with vigour in the second phase. The plays in this phase were varied and tried to portray the social realities. Several of Munier Chowdhury's powerful plays, including some translated works, were published at this time. Munier Chowdhury's Dandakaranya (1966) was written on the subject of contemporary society. His play Chithi was a satire written on ordinary subjects to creater laughter. Although written on a historical subject, his Raktakta Prantar was a superb dramatisation of the contemporary anti-war psychology. Based on historical subjects, Sikander Abu Zafar's Sirajuddaula (1965) and Mahakavi Alaol (1966) were comments on life. Shawkat Osman also attempted to write plays on contemporary society. His Amlar Mamla, Taskar Laskar, Kankar Mani and Etimkhana were all based on contemporary social topics.
Syed Waliullah was a distinguished name in Bangla dramatic literature. He was the first playwright to introduce the style and techniques of elegance and technique in Bangla plays. His Bahipir and Tarabgabhabga (1964) were additions of differing genre in Bangla drama. Like him, Sayeed Ahmed also used modern philosophy and artistic theories to create Bangla plays. His Kalbela (1962) and Milepost could be compared with the standard of world class plays. In technique of form too these plays were innovative and experimental.
Alauddin Al-Azad's Mayabi Prahar (1969) is based on class struggle, while Moroccor Yadughar (1959) depicts the problems of modern life through symbolsm. Sikander Abu Zafar also successfully used symbolism in his plays as  in Shakunta Upakhyan (1968). Zia Haider's Shubhra Sundar Kalyani Ananda (1970) and Abdullah Al-Mamun's Shapath (1965) are also essentially symbolic plays. Other playwrights of this period include anis Chowdhury, Neelima Ibrahim, A.N.M. Bazlur Rashid, Ibrahim Khalil and Kalyan Mitra.
The essays in this phase mainly concentrated on research about the history of Bangla literature with emphasis on Muslim writers. Some important works of the time were Nazirul Islam Muhammad Sufian's Bangla Sahityer Natun Itihas, Abdul Latif Choudhury's Bangla Sahityer Itihas, Muhammad Enamul Huq's Muslim Bangla Sahitya, joint work of Muhammad Abdul Hai and Syed Ali Ahsan Bangla Sahityer Itibrtta, Kazi Deen Muhammad's Bangla Sahityer Itihas and Muhammad Mansuruddin's Bangla Sahitye Muslim Sadhana.
Other essays on society, literature and culture were written at this time, including the essays contained in Kazi Deen Muhammad's Sahitya-sambhar O Sahityashilpa, Ahmad Sharif's Bichita Chinta and Mazharul Islam's Sahitya Pathe. There have been many essays on thematic aspects of Bangla literature but few on its structural aspects. Syed Ali Ahsan, however, showed the way in his Kavitar Katha and Adhunik Kavita: Shabder Anusange. Other important essays in this respect were Syed Ali Ashraf's Kavya Parichay and Ranesh Dasgupta's Upanyaser Shilparup.
In this phase several writers wrote books on Bangla. A number of well-known works include Muhammad Shahidullah's Bangala Bhasar Itibirtta, Muhammad Abdul Hai's Dhvani Bijvan O Bangla Dhvanitattva, and Shibprosanna Lahiri's Sylheti Bhasatattver Bhumika. A number of books were also written on the contribution of Muslim writers in Bangla literature. Some of these books include Anisuzzaman's Muslim Manas O Bangla Sahitya, Kazi Abdul Mannan's Adhunik Bangla Sahitye Muslim Sadhana, Muhammad Mahfuzullah's Bangla Kavye Muslim Aitihya, Mustafa Nurul Islam's Muslim Bangla Sahitya and Ghulam Saqlain's Muslim Sahitya O Sahityik and Purba Pakistaner Sufi Sadhak.
The interest in Puthi literature grew at this time as researchers delved into the medieval past of Bangla literature. Alaol's Padmavati was edited by Muhammad Shahidullah, Syed Ali Ahsan and Abdul Karim Sahityavixarad. Ahmad Sharif edited over 15 puthis including Daulat Uzir Bahram Khan's Laily-Majnu (1958), Alaol's Tohfa (1958), Muhammad Khan's Satyakali-Bibad-Sambad Ba Yug Sambad (1959) and Jainuddin's Rasulbijay (1964). Daulat Kazi's Satimayna O Lorchandrani (1969) was edited by Mazharul Islam and Muhammad Abdul Hafiz, and Nawajis Khan's Gule Bakawali (1970) was edited by Razia Sultana.
Despite the antipathy of the Pakistani rulers towards Rabindranath, the period saw a growing interest in Rabindranath reflected in the number of books written on him. Among these books are Mofazzal Haider Chaudhuri's Rabi Parikrama, Anwar Pasha's Rabindra Chhotagalpa Samiksa, Jogeshchandra Singh's Dhyani Rabindranath, Anisuzzaman edited Rabindranath, Syed Akram Husain's Rabindranather Upanyas: Deshkal O shilparup, Ahmad Kabir's Rabindrakavya: Upama O Pratik and Humayun Azad's Rabindranath: Rastra O Samajchinta.
The liberation war of 1971 and the independence of Bangladesh marks the third phase of the literature of this region.
The fiction of this phase records the saga of the liberation war, the hellish face of the war, the dream of a free and egalitarian Bangladesh and thereafter the realisation of independence. Syed Shamsul Huq's novels of this phase depict the complex and multifaceted conflicts. His novel Duratva (1981) very faithfully portrays, through the autobiographical account of Zainal, a college teacher, the intricate socio-political realities of post-1975 Bangladesh. His two other novels, Mahashunye Paran Master 1982) and Ayna Bibir Pala (1982), also depict the changes and erosion in rural life.
Hasnat Abdul Hai's novel Timi (1981) depicts the instability and socio-political scenario of the years immediately following independence. It portrays quite faithfully how the people of the coastal union Kazalpur win in their struggle against evil forces. Almost an identical picture is portrayed in his novel Prabhu (1986). Bashir al-Helal's Shesh Panpatra (1986) is also a fine portrayal of conflicts and questions of existence in post-indepence rural Bangladesh.
The struggle of the char people for survival in the coastal region has been truly reflected in Selina Husain's Jalochchhvas (1972) and Pokamakader Gharbasati (1986). Two other books of the type are Abu Bakr Siddique's Jal Raksas (1985) and Kharadaha (1987). A more optimistic view of rural life is found in Haripada Dutta's Ishane Agnidaha (1986) and Andhakupe Janmotsav (1987).
A large section of the patriotic middle class who took part in the liberation war got frustrated at the country's economic, social and political conditions. The post-1971 novels painted pictures of the post-independence instability and despondency. Sarder Jayenuddin's Shrimati Ka O Kha Ebam Shriman Taleb Ali (1973) depicts the overwhelming corrosion in the life of the middle class in the post-liberation days. Humayun Ahmed's Nandita Narake (1972) and Shabkhanil Karagar (1973) depict the static state of the life of the middle class and their frustrations and loneliness. The picture of the alienated hedonist is found in Syed Shamsul Huq's Khelaram Khele Ya (1973). The multifarious problems in the life of the middle class are also depicted in Rashid Karim's Prem Ekti Lal Golap (1978) and Sadharan Loker Kahini (1981). Rizia Rahman's Rakter Aksar (1978), on the other hand, paints the dark picture of an urban slum of sex workers. Her Ekti Fuler Janya (1986) presents a freedom fighter's face wearing the scars of defeat. Some other similar books are Shawkat Ali's Apeksa (1985), Bashir Al-Helal's Kalo Ilish (1979), Hasnat Abdul Hai's Amar Atatayi (1980), and Selina Husain's Magnachaitanye Shish (1979). Razia Khan's novel He Mahajiban (1983) narrates the biography of a liberated woman.                                     
   (to be continued)

Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

City »

Bangladesh Army Chief Aziz Ahmed inspcting parade on occasion of endorsing regimental colour to Adhoc 11 Bangladesh Infantry Regiment (Machanised ) at CMP Center and School Parade Ground in Savar Cantonment yesterday.

Cricket »

BCB President Nazmul Hassan assumes rotating ACC Presidency

President of Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) Nazmul Hassan Papon MP assumed the post of Asian Cricket Council (ACC) President for a two- year term at its Annual General Meeting held in the Pakistani city of Lahore on Saturday.Nazmul Hassan Papon is the 3rd ACC President from Bangladesh following in the ...

Cricket »

England win second Test against Sri Lanka to seal series

AFP, Kandy :Jack Leach's first five-wicket haul clinched an overwhelming win for England in the second Test against Sri Lanka on Sunday that sealed the series with a match to go.England needed just 30 minutes on the fifth day to take the final three wickets with Leach fittingly getting last ...

Editorial »

US-China trade war : An opportunity for BD to expand businesses and attract FDI

THE ongoing trade war between the US and China has created a better opportunity for Bangladesh, especially for garment sectors. The exporters have been receiving a greater number of work orders from both China and the US. The current trade war has opened an opportune moment for us (Bangladesh) as ...

International »

Sri Lankan President seeks talks to end power struggle

AFP, Colombo :Sri Lanka's President Maithripala Sirisena on Sunday called crucial talks with political leaders in a bid to end a power struggle with the prime minister he sacked last month.The Indian Ocean nation has been paralysed since October 26 when Sirisena deposed Ranil Wickremesinghe as premier and replaced him ...

International »

No ‘final conclusion’ on Khashoggi killing, say US

AFP, Washington  :The US government has not reached a final conclusion over the killing of Jamal Khashoggi, the State Department said Saturday following reports that the CIA had held the Saudi Crown Prince responsible."Recent reports indicating that the US government has made a final conclusion are inaccurate," State Department spokeswoman ...

Entertainment »

What Kriti Sanon is learning for her next movie?

Actress Kriti Sanon who has her hands filled currently with multiple projects has started taking Marathi lessons for her upcoming next. The actress who is currently shooting for Housefull 4 has already begun prep for her next, Panipat. As Kriti will be seen essaying the role of a Maratha queen ...

Entertainment »

IFFI to pay tributes to Sridevi, Shashi Kapoor and others

Actor Sridevi, who died unexpectedly earlier this year, will be posthumously honoured at the 49th edition of International Film Festival of India (IFFI). Sridevi, who had an illustrious career spanning over four decades, died at the age of 55 due to accidental drowning in Dubai earlier this year. The actor ...

Campus Life »

DIU Chairman gets honorary doctorate

Campus Report :In recognition of his vision to digital transformation of society, skill management to imbibe the spirit of entrepreneurship in every youth, and social contribution to destitute children through Daffodil Institute of Social Sciences (DISS) in association with Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS), Bhubaneswar, India, the management of ...

Business & Economy »

Mohammad Nawaz, Director of South Bangla Agriculture & Commerce (SBAC) Bank Ltd, inaugurating its 66th branch at Abdullahpur in South Keranigonj of Dhaka on Sunday. Md. Golam Faruque, Managing Director of the bank presided over the ceremony. DMD Tariqul Islam Chowdhury, Company Secretary Md. Mokaddes Ali and Branch Manager Salil Kumar Dutta were present.

Football »

Neymar penalty punishes Uruguay in feisty friendly

Neymar kept his cool to score the controversial penalty that fired Brazil to a 1-0 win over Uruguay in a full-blooded friendly on Friday.Brazil captain Neymar was subjected to some ferocious fouls from Uruguay as the clash between the South American rivals boiled over at Arsenal's Emirates Stadium.But the Paris ...

Cricket »

Shakib returns as BCB announces squad for 1st Test against WI

The Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) on Saturday announced the squad for the first Test of two-match series against the West Indies (WI) with ace all-rounder Shakib Al Hasan returned to the squad.Another big-name inclusion in the squad is Soumya Sarkar, whose last Test appearance came on the tour of South ...

Editorial »

Pro-people police is the demand of time

THE Police Investigation Bureau (PIB) has unveiled the mystery behind a spine-chilling crime where a middle-aged woman passenger was killed inside a running bus at Ashulia in the outskirts of Dhaka city. It took hardly seven days for them to crack the case. Police have already arrested the murderers along ...

International »

US opposes UN resolution condemning Israel's occupation of Golan Heights

AFP, United Nations :For the first time, the United States voted Friday against an annual UN resolution condemning Israel's occupation of the Golan Heights, dropping its practice of abstaining in the vote.The non-binding resolution was adopted in a General Assembly committee by a vote of 151 to 2, with the ...

Entertainment »

Aupee Karim returning to big screen

Entertainment Desk :Actress Aupee Karim is returning to the big screen after 15 years , with a film titled "Debris of Desire."Aupee made her debut in cinema with Mostofa Sarwar Farooki's 'Bachelor,' for which the actor won the Bangladesh National Film Award for Best Actress in 2004. The film is ...

Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Write a comment to this news