Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Wednesday, September 26, 2018 07:42:21 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

The Islamic Calendar : History and rationale

By
12th-Sep-2018       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was introduced in 638CE by Umar bin al Khattab (Ra) who was a close Companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the second caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar (Ra) did it in an attempt to rationalize the various, at times conflicting, dating systems used during his time.
He consulted his advisers on the starting date of the new Muslim chronology. It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was of Hijra which chronicles the divinely ordained Hijrat (migration) of the Holy Prophet and his companions from Makkah to Madinah on September 20, 622CE. For this reason, the Islamic calendar is known as the Hijra calendar.
The actual starting date for the Hijra calendar was chosen (on the basis of purely lunar years, counting backwards) to be the first day of the first month (1 Muharram) of the year of Hijrah. Thus 1 Muharram, 1AH, corresponds to July 15, 622CE. A Hijra year is usually abbreviated AH in Western languages from the Latinised Anno Hegirae.
Hijrat is the central historical event of early Islam. It led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in Islamic and world history. To Muslims, the Hijra calendar is not just a sentimental system of time reckoning and dating important religious events, e.g. Siyam (fasting) and Hajj. It has a much deeper religious and historical significance.
It is a unique aspect of the Islamic Era that it did not start with the victories of Islamic wars, or with the birth or death of the Holy Prophet (Sm) or the Revelation of the Holy Quran. It starts with Hijrat or the sacrifice  to migrate for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation.
 It was divinely inspired selection. Allah wanted to teach man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal. The Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp and glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them to do the same.
The Islamic year consists of twelve lunar months. These are Muharram, Safar, Rabee' al-Awwal, Rabee' ath-Thaanee al-Aakhir, Jumaada al-Ulaa, Jumaada ath-Thaaniyah al-Aakhirah, Rajab Sha'ban Ramadhan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi'dah and Dhul-Hijjah.
Some dates of very  importantce  in the  Islamic year are: 1st Muharram (first day of the year), 10th Muharram, (Ashura), Akheri Chahar Shomba, Milad-un-Nabi (Sa), Fateha-e- Iazdaham, 27th  Rajab (Isra and M'iraj), Shab-e-Barat, Month of Ramadhan  (days of fasting), 17th  Ramadhan (Battle of Badar), last 10 days of Ramadhan (which include Lailatul Qadr when the Holy Quran was revealed in one of the uneven  days, the majority  thinkers are of the opinion that it is the 27th night of Ramadhan, Zum'atul Wida,  1st Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr) and  10th  Dhul-Hijjah (Eid-ul-Adha).
In establishing the new Islamic calendar, the Caliph Umar (Ra) relied on several passages of the Holy Quran,   including the following ones:
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) -- so ordained by Him the day He created the Heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to unbelief: the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. ( Sura Taubah 9: 36-37)
It is He who made the sun to be shining glory and the moon to be alight (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that you might know the number of years and the count (of time)." (Sura Yunus 10: 5)
As the Islamic world runs on lunar time, the calendar slips back 11 days for every year, and special days important in the life of every Muslim travel all around the year. Thus, the months have no permanent relation to the seasons. For instance, the fasting month of Ramadhan (the ninth month of the Islamic calendar) may occur in winter, summer, spring or autumn, making a complete cycle every 33 Gregorian years.   
Dawah (Invocation) means to call, to invite. A Muslim who has received the message of Allah must do his/her utmost to communicate this message to other human beings. This Dawah work in its nature is a  great  task. The more one follows the way of the Prophet in the performance of this task, the greater the reward one will receive for it.
"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad(Pbuh) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Quran) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided." (Sura Nahl 16: 125)

-www.iman.co.nz/calendar/history.php

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Sports »

Law leaving West Indies to coach Middlesex


Stuart Law is leaving his role as West Indies head coach to take over at Middlesex from next season, the English county announced on Monday.The former Australia batsman has signed a four-year deal and will begin duties in January following West Indies' tours of India and Bangladesh."It is a great ...

Editorial »

The audacity of Myanmar is only can be answered by an united int`l community


MYANMAR'S powerful army chief says the United Nations has no right to interfere in his country's sovereignty, a week after UN investigators called for him and other top generals to be prosecuted for "genocide" against the Rohingya. Min Aung Hlaing's comments to an army newspaper were his first public reaction ...

City »

BNP Standing Committee Member Barrister Moudud Ahmed, among others, at a youth rally organised by Jatiyatabadi Projanmo '71 at the Jatiya Press Club on Tuesday demanding release of BNP Chief Begum Khaleda Zia and election under impartial caretaker government.


Business & Economy »

DORP Founder Nouman attends 3rd World Congress in USA


Business Desk :AHM Nouman the Gusi Peace Prize International Laureate and Founder of Development Organization of the Rural Poor (DORP) will attend the 3rd world congress on Mother and Neonatal Nursing Care in Chicago, USA. The two-day long congress will be held on September 26-27, 2018, says a media release. ...

International »

After N Korea, Trump targets Iran with `maximum pressure`


AFP, United Nations :One year after mobilizing the international community against North Korea, Donald Trump is trying to force another arch enemy to the negotiating table by targeting Iran with a similar campaign of "maximum pressure."But if North Korea's leader Kim Jong Un has seen his standing with the US ...

International »

US Judge may dismiss Stormy Daniels lawsuit against Trump


Reuters, Los Angeles: President Donald Trump likely had a free-speech right to make a Twitter comment disputing allegations by adult film actress Stormy Daniels, a federal judge said on Monday, indicating he was inclined to dismiss her defamation lawsuit against Trump.Daniels, whose real name is Stephanie Clifford and who has ...

Entertainment »

Ekta Kapoor`s mantra in selecting platforms for content!


Touted as content czarina, Ekta Kapoor is undoubtedly the only female producer who has carved her niche in the industry with utmost excellence. Ekta Kapoor is currently riding high as she is juggling between multiple projects across various mediums. Ekta has set a benchmark when it comes to daily soaps. ...

Editorial »

Maldives' people reject authoritarian rule and voted for democracy


MALDIVES strongman President Yameen Abdul Gayoom conceded that he lost Sunday's election to his challenger Ibrahim Mohamed Solih, in a speech broadcast live on television Monday, according to the international media. Mr Yameen congratulated Solih and said, "I know I have to step down now."  The Election Commission said voter ...

Cricket »

'Rashid is best but not unplayable' says Mahmudullah


Mahmudullah Riyad sorted out a vigorous 74 against Afghanistan rescuing Bangladesh from a plausible downfall.Mahmudullah Riyad and Imrul Kayes stood tall in the middle when the team was languishing losing all five in the top order in a score of 87 on the board. The duo added 128 runs in ...

International »

Thousands attend funeral for Iran attack dead


AFP :Tens of thousands of mourners attended a funeral on Monday in the southwestern Iranian city of Ahvaz for soldiers and civilians killed in an attack on a military parade.Four militants attacked the Saturday parade marking the start of the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war, spraying the crowd with gunfire and killing ...

City »

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina addressing a reception accorded to her by the expatriate Bangladeshis at a hotel in New York on Sunday.


Entertainment »

Mehazabien, Apurba in Puja special play


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Popular pair of the small screen of present time Mehazabien Chowdhury and Ziaul Faruk Apurba worked together in a special play of Durga Puja for the first time. Title of the play is Priyo Tumi. Directed by Mahmudur Rahman Himi story of the play is written by ...

Editorial »

Attack on Iran`s elite guards


IRANIAN Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei accused US-backed Gulf Arab states of carrying out a shooting attack on a military parade that killed 25 people, almost half of them members of the country's elite Revolutionary Guards. Khamenei ordered security forces to bring to justice those responsible for one of the ...

Sports »

Bertens defeats Tomljanovic to secure Korea Open win


AFP, Seoul :Kiki Bertens defeated Australia's Ajla Tomljanovic in the Korea Open final on Sunday, securing her third WTA Tour singles title of the season to continue her career-best year.The second-seeded Bertens came back from break down in the deciding set to defeat the Australian in two hours and 22 ...

International »

World leaders gather at UN under threat from unilateralism


AP, United Nations :With rising unilateralism challenging its very existence, the United Nations convenes its annual meeting of world leaders Monday and will try once more to tackle problems together as a community of nations, addressing threats ranging from Mideast conflicts to the effects of global warming - and also ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news