Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Thursday, July 18, 2019 01:31:13 AM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

The Islamic Calendar : History and rationale

By
12th-Sep-2018       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was introduced in 638CE by Umar bin al Khattab (Ra) who was a close Companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the second caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar (Ra) did it in an attempt to rationalize the various, at times conflicting, dating systems used during his time.
He consulted his advisers on the starting date of the new Muslim chronology. It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was of Hijra which chronicles the divinely ordained Hijrat (migration) of the Holy Prophet and his companions from Makkah to Madinah on September 20, 622CE. For this reason, the Islamic calendar is known as the Hijra calendar.
The actual starting date for the Hijra calendar was chosen (on the basis of purely lunar years, counting backwards) to be the first day of the first month (1 Muharram) of the year of Hijrah. Thus 1 Muharram, 1AH, corresponds to July 15, 622CE. A Hijra year is usually abbreviated AH in Western languages from the Latinised Anno Hegirae.
Hijrat is the central historical event of early Islam. It led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in Islamic and world history. To Muslims, the Hijra calendar is not just a sentimental system of time reckoning and dating important religious events, e.g. Siyam (fasting) and Hajj. It has a much deeper religious and historical significance.
It is a unique aspect of the Islamic Era that it did not start with the victories of Islamic wars, or with the birth or death of the Holy Prophet (Sm) or the Revelation of the Holy Quran. It starts with Hijrat or the sacrifice  to migrate for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation.
 It was divinely inspired selection. Allah wanted to teach man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal. The Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp and glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them to do the same.
The Islamic year consists of twelve lunar months. These are Muharram, Safar, Rabee' al-Awwal, Rabee' ath-Thaanee al-Aakhir, Jumaada al-Ulaa, Jumaada ath-Thaaniyah al-Aakhirah, Rajab Sha'ban Ramadhan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi'dah and Dhul-Hijjah.
Some dates of very  importantce  in the  Islamic year are: 1st Muharram (first day of the year), 10th Muharram, (Ashura), Akheri Chahar Shomba, Milad-un-Nabi (Sa), Fateha-e- Iazdaham, 27th  Rajab (Isra and M'iraj), Shab-e-Barat, Month of Ramadhan  (days of fasting), 17th  Ramadhan (Battle of Badar), last 10 days of Ramadhan (which include Lailatul Qadr when the Holy Quran was revealed in one of the uneven  days, the majority  thinkers are of the opinion that it is the 27th night of Ramadhan, Zum'atul Wida,  1st Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr) and  10th  Dhul-Hijjah (Eid-ul-Adha).
In establishing the new Islamic calendar, the Caliph Umar (Ra) relied on several passages of the Holy Quran,   including the following ones:
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) -- so ordained by Him the day He created the Heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to unbelief: the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. ( Sura Taubah 9: 36-37)
It is He who made the sun to be shining glory and the moon to be alight (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that you might know the number of years and the count (of time)." (Sura Yunus 10: 5)
As the Islamic world runs on lunar time, the calendar slips back 11 days for every year, and special days important in the life of every Muslim travel all around the year. Thus, the months have no permanent relation to the seasons. For instance, the fasting month of Ramadhan (the ninth month of the Islamic calendar) may occur in winter, summer, spring or autumn, making a complete cycle every 33 Gregorian years.   
Dawah (Invocation) means to call, to invite. A Muslim who has received the message of Allah must do his/her utmost to communicate this message to other human beings. This Dawah work in its nature is a  great  task. The more one follows the way of the Prophet in the performance of this task, the greater the reward one will receive for it.
"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad(Pbuh) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Quran) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided." (Sura Nahl 16: 125)

-www.iman.co.nz/calendar/history.php

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Editorial »

Ensure hassle-free higher education for them


THE results of this year's Higher Secondary Certificate and equivalent examinations under country's 10 education boards were announced yesterday where the combined pass rate rose by 7. 29 percent - that means it's now 73.93 per cent from last year's 66.64 per cent. The number of GPA-5 achievers in the ...

City »

Students of the city`s Motijheel Ideal School and College exulting over the brilliant results of the HSC examination. The snap was taken from the premises of the institution on Wednesday.


.

International »

China gifts military warship to Sri Lanka in sign of deepening cooperation


PTI, Beijing : China has gifted a warship to Sri Lanka, in the latest sign of its deepening military cooperation with the strategically located island nation in the Indian Ocean. Also, China's rolling-stock manufacturer has announced that it would shortly deliver nine "new type" of diesel trains to Sri Lanka.The China-gifted ...

Entertainment »

Peya Bipasha`s Eid telefilm Opekkha


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Gleaming model and actress Peya Bipasha has recently acted in an Eid telefilm titled Opekkha under the direction of Maksudur Rahman Bishal. This was Peya’s first work for the upcoming Eid. In the telefilm, Peya Bipasha will be seen against Emon on the screen. Promising TV actress ...

Editorial »

Accidents at level crossings


A newly-married couple and eight others of the bridal party were killed when a Dhaka-bound train rammed their microbus at an unmanned level crossing in Sirajganj's Ullapara upazila on Monday evening. The fatal accident has spoiled unmet dream of the couple. It's due to utter negligence of the Railway Authorities ...

Football »

Argentine sport court member advices Messi to apologize


AP, Buenos Aires :Lionel Messi should apologize for his harsh comments at the Copa America in order to avoid a sanction, an Argentine member of sport's highest court said on Monday.Following defeats in the last two finals, Messi had another frustrating end to the tournament when he was sent off ...

International »

Government restrictions on religion increasing worldwide


AP, New York  :Government restrictions on religion have increased markedly in many places around the world, not only in authoritarian countries, but also in many of Europe's democracies, according to a report surveying 198 countries that was released Monday.The report released by the Pew Research Center, covering developments through 2017, ...

International »

Erdogan hails S-400 deal as Turkey marks 2016 coup bid


AFP, Istanbul :President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Monday hailed the controversial delivery of a Russian missile defence system despite the threat of US sanctions, as Turkey marked the third anniversary of a bloody coup attempt.Just days before the anniversary, the first batch of the Russian S-400 defence system was delivered ...

Business & Economy »

HMD Global launches two Nokia Smart Phones


Economic Reporter :HMD Global, the home of Nokia phones, launched Nokia 3.2 and Nokia 2.2 in Bangladesh.The Launching ceremony was held at a city hotel on Tuesday.  Farhan Rashid, Head of Business of HMD Global Bangladesh, Raquibul Kabir, Managing Director of Union Group, Syed MostahidalHoq, Managing Director of Daraz Bangladesh ...

Entertainment »

Lea Michele to star in Same Time, Next Christmas


Actor Lea Michele is set to star in ABC's Christmas movie titled Same Time, Next Christmas. In the movie, the Glee alum will play Olivia Henderson, a young woman who meets her childhood sweetheart during her family's annual Christmas visit to Hawaii. After being separated by distance and time, the ...

Entertainment »

Amala Paul reveals she is in a relationship


Actress Amala Paul, who is awaiting the release of her upcoming film 'Aadai' on July 19, has revealed that she is in a relationship. It is to be noted that the pretty actress fell in love with Director Vijay while working for 'Deiva Thirumagal' and the duo got married in ...

Cricket »

Cricket World Cup team of the tournament


England won the World Cup for the first time after beating New Zealand in Sunday's thrilling final at Lord's, bringing the curtain down on a dramatic event featuring some superb individual performances.AFP Sport names its team of the tournament:Rohit Sharma (India)The 32-year-old emerged as the tournament's star batsman, making history ...

Cricket »

I will be apologising for rest of my life - Stokes on overthrows drama


Ben Stokes has been saying sorry a lot lately. His latest apology was to the people of New Zealand for one of the most outrageous sporting flukes that contributed to England winning the Cricket World Cup at the expense of the country of his birth.Stokes had already broken New Zealand ...

International »

Iran tanker will be freed after guarantees, says Britain


British foreign secretary Jeremy Hunt sought to ease tensions with Iran on Saturday, saying a tanker held by Gibraltar would be released if Tehran guaranteed it was not heading to Syria.He said he had a "constructive call" with his Iranian counterpart Mohammad Javad Zarif, who he said assured him that ...

Entertainment »

Deepika’s Veronica stays etched; shares sneak peeks as Cocktail turns seven


Bollywood’s leading lady Deepika Padukone gave an electrifying performance in one of her most strongly essayed characters- Veronica which stays as one of her most memorable characters. As Cocktail clocks seven years today, the actress took to social media to give a shout-out to one of her most rebellious characters ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news