Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Saturday, September 21, 2019 11:37:16 AM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

The Islamic Calendar : History and rationale

By
12th-Sep-2018       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was introduced in 638CE by Umar bin al Khattab (Ra) who was a close Companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the second caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar (Ra) did it in an attempt to rationalize the various, at times conflicting, dating systems used during his time.
He consulted his advisers on the starting date of the new Muslim chronology. It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was of Hijra which chronicles the divinely ordained Hijrat (migration) of the Holy Prophet and his companions from Makkah to Madinah on September 20, 622CE. For this reason, the Islamic calendar is known as the Hijra calendar.
The actual starting date for the Hijra calendar was chosen (on the basis of purely lunar years, counting backwards) to be the first day of the first month (1 Muharram) of the year of Hijrah. Thus 1 Muharram, 1AH, corresponds to July 15, 622CE. A Hijra year is usually abbreviated AH in Western languages from the Latinised Anno Hegirae.
Hijrat is the central historical event of early Islam. It led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in Islamic and world history. To Muslims, the Hijra calendar is not just a sentimental system of time reckoning and dating important religious events, e.g. Siyam (fasting) and Hajj. It has a much deeper religious and historical significance.
It is a unique aspect of the Islamic Era that it did not start with the victories of Islamic wars, or with the birth or death of the Holy Prophet (Sm) or the Revelation of the Holy Quran. It starts with Hijrat or the sacrifice  to migrate for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation.
 It was divinely inspired selection. Allah wanted to teach man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal. The Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp and glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them to do the same.
The Islamic year consists of twelve lunar months. These are Muharram, Safar, Rabee' al-Awwal, Rabee' ath-Thaanee al-Aakhir, Jumaada al-Ulaa, Jumaada ath-Thaaniyah al-Aakhirah, Rajab Sha'ban Ramadhan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi'dah and Dhul-Hijjah.
Some dates of very  importantce  in the  Islamic year are: 1st Muharram (first day of the year), 10th Muharram, (Ashura), Akheri Chahar Shomba, Milad-un-Nabi (Sa), Fateha-e- Iazdaham, 27th  Rajab (Isra and M'iraj), Shab-e-Barat, Month of Ramadhan  (days of fasting), 17th  Ramadhan (Battle of Badar), last 10 days of Ramadhan (which include Lailatul Qadr when the Holy Quran was revealed in one of the uneven  days, the majority  thinkers are of the opinion that it is the 27th night of Ramadhan, Zum'atul Wida,  1st Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr) and  10th  Dhul-Hijjah (Eid-ul-Adha).
In establishing the new Islamic calendar, the Caliph Umar (Ra) relied on several passages of the Holy Quran,   including the following ones:
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) -- so ordained by Him the day He created the Heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to unbelief: the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. ( Sura Taubah 9: 36-37)
It is He who made the sun to be shining glory and the moon to be alight (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that you might know the number of years and the count (of time)." (Sura Yunus 10: 5)
As the Islamic world runs on lunar time, the calendar slips back 11 days for every year, and special days important in the life of every Muslim travel all around the year. Thus, the months have no permanent relation to the seasons. For instance, the fasting month of Ramadhan (the ninth month of the Islamic calendar) may occur in winter, summer, spring or autumn, making a complete cycle every 33 Gregorian years.   
Dawah (Invocation) means to call, to invite. A Muslim who has received the message of Allah must do his/her utmost to communicate this message to other human beings. This Dawah work in its nature is a  great  task. The more one follows the way of the Prophet in the performance of this task, the greater the reward one will receive for it.
"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad(Pbuh) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Quran) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided." (Sura Nahl 16: 125)

-www.iman.co.nz/calendar/history.php

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Editorial »

Breathing the worst air in Dhaka


THE Air Quality Index (AQI) on Thursday morning showed that Dhaka's air quality was the second-worst in the world. Dhaka had a score of 190 at 8:21am, indicating that the quality was unhealthy. When the AQI value is between 101 and 200, there is an increased likelihood of adverse effects ...

City »

Natun Dhara Bangladesh formed a human chain in front of the Jatiya Press Club on Friday with a call to ban casino business.


.

Entertainment »

Jhumu Khan will return to music any time


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Jhumu Khan is a professional doctor. Before becoming doctor she started her career in music. In 1994, her first solo album titled Chondrima Raatey was released. A song of that album titled Pan Khaite Chun Lagey got popularity during that time. Composed by Manam Ahmed Hasan Motiur ...

International »

Pompeo favours 'peaceful resolution' to crisis after Saudi oil attack


AFP, Dubai :The US wants a peaceful solution to the crisis sparked by attacks on Saudi oil installations, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said Thursday, after Iran raised the spectre of "all-out war".Pompeo has blamed Iran for the dramatic weekend assault on two facilities, condemning an "act of war" which ...

Front Page »

2 Rohingyas among 3 'criminals' killed in C'bazar gunfight


UNB, Cox's Bazar :Three suspected criminals, including two Rohingyas, were killed in a reported gunfight with police at Baharchhara in Teknaf upazila early Thursday.The deceased were identified as Mohammad Jamil, 20, son of Fazal Ahmed; and Asmat Ullah, 21, son of Nabi Hossain of Ukhiya's Balukhali camp; and Mohammad Rafique, ...

Sports »

Timea Babos of Hungary, returns a shot to Karolina Muchova of the Czech Republic, during their second round match of the Korea Open tennis championships in Seoul, South Korea on Thursday.


International »

UK, US discuss need for united diplomatic response to Saudi attack


Reuters, London :British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and U.S. President Donald Trump condemned last weekend's attack on Saudi Arabian oil facilities and discussed the need for a united diplomatic response in a telephone call on Wednesday, Mr Johnson's office said."They condemned the attacks and discussed the need for a united ...

International »

US senators urge Trump to end nuclear talks with Saudi Arabia


Reuters, Washington :Two Democratic U.S. senators on Wednesday urged Trump administration officials to halt talks with Saudi Arabia on building nuclear reactors after weekend attacks that halved the country's oil output and increased instability in the Middle East.U.S. Energy Secretary Rick Perry told reporters on Tuesday at a nuclear power ...

Editorial »

Investors losing interest in stock market


THE government's recent measures to prop up the stock market appear to have failed as the unusual fall of share prices continues to rattle investors. The DSEX, the benchmark index of Dhaka Stock Exchange, slumped to a 33-month low to 4,888 points on Wednesday, losing 533.61 points or 9.84 percent ...

Entertainment »

Farhana Mili in role of judge


Entertainment Report :Farhana Mili is a noted actress of the small screen. Basically she won the hearts of so many viewers to work in movie Monpura. After acting in this movie, she only engaged herself with acting only in the small screen. Sometimes Mili is seen to perform as a ...

Cricket »

England cricket chiefs back Ben Stokes in family tragedy story row


England cricket chiefs on Tuesday rallied round star all-rounder Ben Stokes after he criticised a British newspaper report about a family tragedy more than 30 years ago.Tom Harrison, chief executive of the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB), said he was "disgusted and appalled" by the front-page story in The ...

Editorial »

Needs sustainable solution to Rohingya crisis


THE Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Tuesday informed the Parliamentary Standing Committee on the same ministry that Dhaka is planning to take Myanmar to the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court for its repression on the Rohingyas. The Foreign Ministry also informed that Bangladesh would also take ...

International »

Iran's President says Yemenis attacked Saudi oil sites as 'warning'


By Agencies :Iran's President Hassan Rouhani said Wednesday that Yemenis targeted Saudi oil installations as a "warning" about a possible wider war in response to the kingdom's US-backed intervention in their conflict-ravaged country."The Yemenis… haven't hit a hospital, they haven't hit a school, they haven't hit Sanaa bazaar. They just ...

International »

Do not underestimate no-deal Brexit, EU's Barnier warns


Reuters, Strasbourg  :The European Union's chief Brexit negotiator warned on Wednesday not to underestimate the consequences of any no-deal Brexit and said issues raised by Britain's exit from the EU would still need addressing before a future relationship could be agreed."I advise everyone not to underestimate the consequences, clearly for ...

Entertainment »

Kareena’s simplistic look comes with a price tag of Rs75K


Kareena Kapoor Khan aka Poo is always ready to ‘woo’ us with her amazing fashion and style. Time and again the actress has proved her fashion statement by giving major goals to many. Her latest girl next door look is one of the looks which every girl would wish for. ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news