Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Wednesday, May 27, 2020 01:52:31 AM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter
BREAKING NEWS:

The Islamic Calendar : History and rationale

By
12th-Sep-2018       
Share
  • Twitter
  • Google+
  • Save
  • E-mail
  • Print
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was introduced in 638CE by Umar bin al Khattab (Ra) who was a close Companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the second caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar (Ra) did it in an attempt to rationalize the various, at times conflicting, dating systems used during his time.
He consulted his advisers on the starting date of the new Muslim chronology. It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was of Hijra which chronicles the divinely ordained Hijrat (migration) of the Holy Prophet and his companions from Makkah to Madinah on September 20, 622CE. For this reason, the Islamic calendar is known as the Hijra calendar.
The actual starting date for the Hijra calendar was chosen (on the basis of purely lunar years, counting backwards) to be the first day of the first month (1 Muharram) of the year of Hijrah. Thus 1 Muharram, 1AH, corresponds to July 15, 622CE. A Hijra year is usually abbreviated AH in Western languages from the Latinised Anno Hegirae.
Hijrat is the central historical event of early Islam. It led to the foundation of the first Muslim city-state, a turning point in Islamic and world history. To Muslims, the Hijra calendar is not just a sentimental system of time reckoning and dating important religious events, e.g. Siyam (fasting) and Hajj. It has a much deeper religious and historical significance.
It is a unique aspect of the Islamic Era that it did not start with the victories of Islamic wars, or with the birth or death of the Holy Prophet (Sm) or the Revelation of the Holy Quran. It starts with Hijrat or the sacrifice  to migrate for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation.
 It was divinely inspired selection. Allah wanted to teach man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal. The Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp and glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them to do the same.
The Islamic year consists of twelve lunar months. These are Muharram, Safar, Rabee' al-Awwal, Rabee' ath-Thaanee al-Aakhir, Jumaada al-Ulaa, Jumaada ath-Thaaniyah al-Aakhirah, Rajab Sha'ban Ramadhan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi'dah and Dhul-Hijjah.
Some dates of very  importantce  in the  Islamic year are: 1st Muharram (first day of the year), 10th Muharram, (Ashura), Akheri Chahar Shomba, Milad-un-Nabi (Sa), Fateha-e- Iazdaham, 27th  Rajab (Isra and M'iraj), Shab-e-Barat, Month of Ramadhan  (days of fasting), 17th  Ramadhan (Battle of Badar), last 10 days of Ramadhan (which include Lailatul Qadr when the Holy Quran was revealed in one of the uneven  days, the majority  thinkers are of the opinion that it is the 27th night of Ramadhan, Zum'atul Wida,  1st Shawwal (Eid ul-Fitr) and  10th  Dhul-Hijjah (Eid-ul-Adha).
In establishing the new Islamic calendar, the Caliph Umar (Ra) relied on several passages of the Holy Quran,   including the following ones:
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) -- so ordained by Him the day He created the Heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred: that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein, and fight the Pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves. Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to unbelief: the unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. ( Sura Taubah 9: 36-37)
It is He who made the sun to be shining glory and the moon to be alight (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that you might know the number of years and the count (of time)." (Sura Yunus 10: 5)
As the Islamic world runs on lunar time, the calendar slips back 11 days for every year, and special days important in the life of every Muslim travel all around the year. Thus, the months have no permanent relation to the seasons. For instance, the fasting month of Ramadhan (the ninth month of the Islamic calendar) may occur in winter, summer, spring or autumn, making a complete cycle every 33 Gregorian years.   
Dawah (Invocation) means to call, to invite. A Muslim who has received the message of Allah must do his/her utmost to communicate this message to other human beings. This Dawah work in its nature is a  great  task. The more one follows the way of the Prophet in the performance of this task, the greater the reward one will receive for it.
"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad(Pbuh) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Quran) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided." (Sura Nahl 16: 125)

-www.iman.co.nz/calendar/history.php

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Back Page »

Thousands of devotees attend the Jumatul Wida, the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan, prayers at Baitul Mukarram National Mosque in the capital, seeking divine blessings for peace and progress of Bangladesh and unity of the Muslim Ummah.


Editorial »

Eid-ul-Fitr is not celebration in the midst of killer corona, observe safety guidelines


EID Mubarak! The nation will celebrate the Eid-ul-Fitr either on Sunday or Monday (subject to sighting of the moon) after the   month-long fasting but there is hardly any mood or environment for celebration in the people amid the surging outbreak of coronavirus.The two months lockdown has rendered the poor people ...

City »

Members of Bangladesh Air Force engaged in removing uprooted and broken trees in the cyclone Amphan-hit areas. The snap was taken from Bhasanchar, Patuakhali on Friday.


.

Sports »

China`s Wang Qiang enjoying time without professional tennis


Agency :Chinese tennis player Wang Qiang, world No.29 in women's singles, told media on Thursday that she is enjoying the days without professional tennis."To be honest, I feel quite good to be able to sit back during this period of time after having traveled and played over many years to ...

Editorial »

Official orders cannot force proper treatment at hospitals


THE Health Ministry issued a warning in the last week of March that no government or private hospital could refuse to provide treatment to any patient from now on. Later, on April 4, the Health Minister said that the government would take stern actions, including cancelling licences, if private hospitals ...

City »

Samajtantrik Chhatra Front formed a human chain in front of the Jatiya Press Club on Thursday demanding enhancement of allocation in health and research sector.


.

Editorial »

Private teachers` suffering should be paid heed to


With no salaries, the majority of teachers at private schools, colleges, and universities suffer in silence before Eid. This socially respected group cannot ask for help to the government or NGOs, not can stand in front of OMS or TCB truck for buying staples and kitchen essentials at a subsidised ...

City »

Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina speaking at a meeting of the National Disaster Management Council from her official residence Ganabhaban through video-conference on Wednesday to review the preparations to face cyclone Amphan.


Sports »

Williams sisters stretch it out with yoga treat for fans


Serena Williams is looking forward to getting back to competing when the coronavirus pandemic permits it, in part because she's "feeling better than ever".Her older sister, Venus, is looking forward to hanging out at a rooftop bar. Two of the most famous and successful siblings in the history of sports-owners ...

Sports »

Papon trashes resumption of cricket in near future


Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB) president Nazmul Hassan Papon on Wednesday dismissed outright any idea of cricket's resumption or touring Sri Lanka in near future, arguing that the country's current situation doesn't let them to discuss this issue as of now."There is no discussion in this regard [when the cricket will ...

Editorial »

Avoid power trap from unused overcapacity in power sector


Study report by a US based energy consultant firm said as reported by a Dhaka based national daily on Tuesday that the government plan to add more power generation capacity by installing big coal- and LNG-fired power plant will create substantial overcapacity in power sector soon much beyond what we ...

City »

Bangladeshi Envoy to Maldives Rear Admiral Nazmul Hasan handing over medicine and medical safety equipment for Bangladeshi physicians and health workers living in Maldives at a ceremony held on Tuesday on behalf of Bangladesh Navy with a view to tackling coronavirus.


.

Sports »

Kohli says father refused to bribe way into team


AFP, New Delhi :India captain Virat Kohli has told how his late father refused to pay a bribe to get him into a Delhi state junior team when he was a teenager.The world's top ranked one-day batsman did not identify who had demanded the bribe but said he was rejected ...

Business & Economy »

Saidur Rahman, Superintendent of Police of Gopalgonj District on behalf of NRB Bank Ltd, distributing essential foods among under privileged and ultra-poor people at the bank's Gonapara Branch premises on Tuesday. Gopalgonj Sador Upazila Mayor Kazi Liakot Ali, Assistant Deputy Commissioner (Revenue) Shahidul Islam and the bank's Head of Gonapara Branch Arifuzzaman, among others, were present.


.

Back Page »

RMG workers block road at Mansurabad in Chattogram on Monday, demanding full payment of their arrears.


 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news