Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Sunday, January 20, 2019 07:58:32 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Cholera threatens a comeback worldwide

By
04th-Nov-2018       
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Anna Kucirkova :
Cholera outbreaks across history regularly killed a hundred thousand or more. It isn't well known today because it was essentially eliminated in the Western world.
It last erupted in the U.S. in the 1800s, eradicated by water and sewage treatment systems that prevented it from spreading via contaminated water. However, cholera is making a comeback around the globe, and it could again become a major killer.
Cholera is caused by eating or drinking something contaminated with the Vibrio cholera bacteria. Because it is waterborne, Western cases tend to occur when someone eats contaminated sea food.
In the developing world, people drinking water from rivers where others bathe and defecate contribute to its spread. That is why the World Health Organization (WHO) records around 150,000 cholera cases per year. Cholera remains common in places with poor sanitation systems or where they do not yet exist. That is why cholera is considered epidemic in places like Africa, Latin America and South Asia.
Tropical climates that don't get cold enough to kill the bacteria, wet soil that breeds it, and unsanitary groundwater that mixes with drinking water can cause one patient's effluent to spread to an entire community. The literal environment prevents the bacteria from being truly eradicated, resulting in it being found in overcrowded slums. Storms and flooding can interfere with local water supplies, bringing in contaminated water that people then drink.
It periodically erupts in active war zones and overcrowded refugee camps that cannot maintain a clean water supply. The lack of proper hygiene in these places certainly contributes to its spread. Yemen and Syria, both in the midst of civil wars, are the worst examples of this.
The cholera outbreak in Haiti has shown that cholera can come roaring back after other natural disasters that disrupt clean water delivery. Globalism contributes to cholera's spread, as well. For example, the Haiti outbreak was likely precipitated by U.N. peacekeepers that picked up cholera in Nepal, arrived in Haiti and then infected the local water supply through poor hygiene. The outbreak killed over ten thousand and infected hundreds of thousands more.
Now a country already struggling to deal with critically damaged infrastructure has to manage cholera, too. This is a tragic blow, since Haiti worked for years to eradicate the disease. The infection and death rates were made worse by the under-developed medical system that the disaster rendered inoperable. In nations with underdeveloped medical systems, they can't keep up with the load of the epidemic, spreading faster and killing many more than it would in a better equipped region.
Bangladesh struggles with endemic cholera. One of their solutions was vaccination against the disease. Vietnam, too, has set up a vaccination program to prevent humans from becoming a transmission vector. Both countries have set up programs to curtail their devastating effects, as well.
Globalization can take cholera to countries that have lived without it so long that doctors don't know what they're dealing with. This can lead to the disease spreading beyond what can easily be contained. Within a few hours of symptoms appearing, patients can lose so much fluid that they're rendered bedridden. This dramatically increases the risk of transmission to others. These few hours are also the ideal time to give someone a mix of fluids and antibiotics to prevent them from becoming dangerously dehydrated. If a patient is misdiagnosed, they could die of dehydration within two or three days. In tropical countries lacking fully developed water and sanitation infrastructure, the soil and untreated groundwater hosts cholera bacteria that can contaminate public water supplies.
The outbreak is made worse by patients spreading it through bodily fluids to those who may have safe drinking water. And because patients can readily travel, the disease can spread rapidly through new vectors. The ebola outbreak in Dallas, Texas was caused by a man, who knew he was exposed, booking a flight to Texas to visit family he hadn't seen in more than a decade. He arrived knowing he might carry the disease and with the hope he'd be treated in the more advanced American hospitals.
Cholera periodically spreads to new areas for the very same reason; people who are sick board buses and planes to get help elsewhere. The less dramatic example is someone carrying cholera traveling by car to an urban hospital, spreading the disease as they travel.
This is the downside of globalization and has long been the basis of strong immigration controls - to make certain that immigrants didn't bring diseases with them. Tuberculosis was routinely screened for in the 1800s and 1900s, but buses, trains and aircraft make it possible for cholera to go global despite its rapidity.
Overcrowded cities have always provided a place for cholera to claim many victims. One major difference today is scale. A cholera epidemic in London two centuries ago would claim tens of thousands in a city of perhaps a million. Third world cities that are home to five to fifteen million, many of whom live in slums, could see a million or more deaths in a bad cholera epidemic. And the constant flow of people from the countryside to the city in the developing world creates a constant risk of an epidemic.
Thanks to our understanding of disease transmission, sanitation and treatment, cholera outbreaks are rarely as catastrophic as the past. But we need to recognize that modern medicine is still in a war with this ancient foe that will continue to threaten humanity for the foreseeable future.
-IPS

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Cricket »

Rangpur Riders beat Sylhet Sixers


Sports Reporter :Rangpur Riders beat Sylhet Sixers by four wickets in their match of the UCB 6th Bangladesh Premier League (BPL) T20 cricket at Sylhet International Cricket Stadium on Saturday.Chasing Sylhet's fighting total of 194 for the loss of four wickets in 20 overs, Rangpur Riders reached the winning target ...

Sports »

Virat Kohli attends Australian Open, posts picture with Roger Federer


The Indian team completed its most successful campaign Down Under as they won the Test and ODI series comfortably. After close to two months of energy-sapping cricket, skipper Virat Kohli along with wife Anushka Sharma looked in a relaxed mood and attended day six of the Australian Open in Melbourne ...

Entertainment »

Alia , Madhuri Nene on the set of Kalank


Alia Bhatt, Varun Dhawan, Madhuri Dixit Nene, Aditya Roy Kapur, Sanjay Dutt and Sonakshi Sinha star together in Kalank. Dharma Productions' next, Kalank, is being directed by Abhishek Varman. The film's shooting is currently on and Varun Dhawan wrapped up shooting for his part of the film just yesterday. However, ...

International »

Afghan Taliban reject talks with US in Pakistan


Reuters, Peshawar :The Afghan Taliban rejected reports in the Pakistani media that they were prepared to resume meetings with U.S. special envoy Zalmay Khalilzad in Islamabad and repeated their refusal to deal directly with the Afghan government.Pakistani newspapers and television stations reported that a meeting in Islamabad was in prospect ...

Editorial »

Bravery and courage of a Bangladeshi expatriate


FOR bravery and courage, a Bangladeshi expatriate has been honoured as he saved the life of a three-year-old boy in UAE. Bangladeshi expatriate Farouk, who works as a welder in Ajman of UAE, rescued the child thrown from the balcony of a burning apartment by his mother.Bangladeshi community in the ...

City »

Law enforcers stand guard for security measures on the occasion of victory rally of Bangladesh Awami League in the city's Suhrawardy Udyan. The snap was taken from TSC area of Dhaka University on Saturday.


City »

Information Minister Dr. Hasan Mahmud speaking at the extended meeting of Awami League at the party office in the city's Bangabandhu Avenue on Friday.


.

International »

Modi's pre-election handouts to cost India billions, breach fiscal targets


Reuters, New Delhi :A series of vote-catching measures planned by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi as he braces for a difficult general election may cost more than 1 trillion rupees ($14 billion), two sources with direct knowledge of the matter said.Much of the cost of the extra spending or revenue ...

Cricket »

Dhoni, Jadhav power India to ODI series victory


Agency :MS Dhoni and Kedhar Jadhav scored half-centuries as India won the third and final ODI against Australia by seven wickets at Melbourne on Friday to seal the series 2-1.Chasing 231 to win, Dhoni (87*) and Jadhav (61*) put together a 121-run partnership to take India home after the bowlers, ...

Entertainment »

Achol returns acting slowly


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Popular film actress of present time Achol has returned to acting but with the appearance of anger. Her elder sister Moonmoon is attached with the underworld. When she knows the matter she becomes anger. Achol will be seen by this way in Mizanur Rahman Mizan’s movie Ragi. ...

Entertainment »

Zahid, Mim, Ferdous after a decade


Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Zahid Hasan, Ferdous and Bidya Sinha Saha Mim worked together in late writer, novelist and filmmaker Humayun Ahmed directed in a movie titled Aamar Achhey Jol 10 years ago. Though Zahid Hasan and Ferdous worked under Humayun Ahmed directed movies and dramas but Mim for the first ...

Editorial »

Corrupt practice should be stopped in Chattogram Port


THE fraud syndicates in connivance with some dishonest clearing and forwarding (C&F) agents in the last two years released 4,000 consignments from Chattogram Port using forged documents and other illegal ways. News media reported that these gangs stole and misused the identities of two former Customs Officials of the Chattogram ...

Cricket »

Warner to return to Australia from BPL with elbow injury


After Steven Smith, David Warner, too, will make an early exit from the Bangladesh Premier League(BPL). The 32-year-old will return to Australia for medical assessment after having reporting pain in his elbow, Cricket Australia confirmed."David has reported some pain in his right elbow. He will return to Australia on January ...

Sports »

Pliskova fires up to reach Aussie Open third round


AFP, Melbourne :Seventh seed Karolina Pliskova recovered from a slow start to storm home against unseeded American Madison Brengle and grab a spot in the Australian Open third round Thursday.The 26-year-old Czech went down a set before unleashing a devastating flurry of aces and winners in her 4-6, 6-1, 6-0 ...

International »

Vietnam prepares for Kim Jong Un visit amid talks of second summit with Trump


Reuters, Hanoi  :Hanoi is preparing to receive North Korean leader Kim Jong Un for a state visit, two sources told Reuters, while officials and diplomats said Vietnam is keen to host a second summit between Kim and U.S. President Donald Trump.A source familiar with the matter said Kim will travel ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news