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Person Not Cheated Cannot Lodge FIR

Section 420 of the Penal Code narrates

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High Court Division
(Criminal Miscellaneous Jurisdiction)

Md Abdul Hafiz        J     
Mohi Uddin Shamim J
Iftekhar Hossain Chowdhury……
Accused -Petitioner
State ………….Opposite-Party.

February 27th, 2019

Code of Criminal Procedure (V of 1898)
Section 561A
Since the proceeding has been initiated on the allegation of misappropriation of money by the accused-petitioner of the Company under Section 420 of the Penal Code by a police officer and not by the Company as a cheated person, the informant had no legal authority to lodge the present FIR against the accused-petitioner. ………………………(15)
Code of Criminal Procedure (V of 1898)
Section 561A
Sanction is not relevant in the instant case, as the law has debarred a person to lodge an FIR under Section 420 of the Penal Code who is not actually cheated. The proceeding basing on an unlawful FIR is a sheer abuse of the process of law and, as such, it is liable to be quashed……………………………………………...(16)     
Code of Criminal Procedure (V of 1898)
Section 561A
It is the general principal of law that anyone can set the law in motion, but there are some exceptions of offense(s) which requires the person who has actually been cheated sustaining loss, damage or injury for the purpose of initiation of any proceeding against a person who is liable for breach of trust or cheating causing such loss, damage or injury………………………………………........ (12)
Sahibzada Muhammad Hayat Khan vs Ghulam Muhammad, 6 DLR (WP) 177 and Surendranath Saha vs State, 12 DLR 178 ref.
HS Deb Brahman, Advocate-For the Petitioner.
Md. Fazlur Rahman Khan, DAG with Swapan Kumar Das, AAG with M. Masud Alam Chowdhury, AAG and Md Asaduzzaman. AAG-For the State.
Mohi Uddin Shamim J: In this matter, at the instance of accused-petitioner Iftekhar Hossain Chowdhury, a Rule was issued in the following terms:-
"Let a Rule be issued calling upon the opposite-parties to show cause as to why the proceedings of the TR Case No. 395 of 2010 arising out of GR Case No. 911 of 2002 corresponding to Panchlaish Police Station Case No. 13 dated 16-11-2002 under Sections 408/420 of the Penal Code, now pending in the Court of learned Metropolitan Magistrate, 2nd Court, Chittagong should not be quashed and/or why such other or further order or orders as to this court may deem fit and proper, should not be passed."
2. Facts necessary for proper disposal of the Rule, in brief, are that SI Md Ayub, Panchlaish Police Station, CMP Chittagong, as per decision and sanction by the Government, lodged a first information report, on 16-11-2002, against the accused-petitioner Iftekhar Hossain Chowdhury, with Panchlaish Police Station, Chittagong under Sections 408/420 of the Penal Code alleging, inter-alia, that the accused-petitioner used to serve as Accounts Manager in a Company, namely, Ceramica Cleopetra, Abudhabi, situated in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) (shortly, the Company) for four years before February, 2002. During his aforesaid service tenure, he misappropriated 4,42,569 Dirham equivalent to BDT 70,00,000 from the Company. Subsequently, he admitted about the misappropriation of money and promised to return the misappropriated money by selling his land property situated in Bangladesh. In this connection, he engaged one Md Idris, father-in-law of his younger brother, by executing a Power of Attorney for selling his property and furnished a copy to the aforesaid Power of Attorney to the said Company. On the other hand, while Md Idris was taking preparation for selling his property, the accused-petitioner, with an ill motive of not to return the misappropriated money to the Company, fled away from the UAE, came to Bangladesh and obstructed his Attorney from selling out his property. Therefore the aforesaid activities of the accused-petitioner undermined the prestige and dignity of Bangladesh and its citizens and thereby, he committed a punishable offence.  The informant having been supplied all the relevant documents by the appropriate authority of the Government of Bangladesh relating to the offence committed by the accused-petitioner held a preliminary inquiry into the matter and finding  prima-facie case against the accused-petitioner he made GD No. 1353 dated 25-9-2002 with the Panchlaish Police Station and in connection with the aforesaid GD, he arrested the accused-petitioner under Section 54 of the Criminal Procedure Code (hereinafter referred to as the Code) and produced him before the Court of the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chittagong. Whereupon, Panchlaish Police Station Case No, l3 dated 16-11-2002 corresponding to GR Case No. 911 of 2002 under Sections 408/420 of the Penal Code has been initiated in the Court of the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chittagong and thereupon, the police took up investigation.
3. Initially, SI Md Ayub was entrusted with the investigation of the case and subsequently, Police Inspector Md Abdul Gafur, PPM, CID, Chittagong Zone, was entrusted with the investigation of the case. The Investigating Officer, after investigation, submitted three charge-sheets-(1) bearing No. 172 dated 30-9-2010 under Sections 408/420 of the Penal Code against the accused-petitioner Iftekhar Hossain Chowdhury, (2) bearing No. 172(Ka) dated 30-9-2010 under Section 16(2) of the Special Powers Act, 1974 against the accused-petitioner Iftekhar Hossain Chowdhury and (3) bearing No. 172(Kha) dated 30-9-2010 under Section 3(3) of the Passport Act against the accused-petitioner Iftekhar  Hossain Chowdhury and his wife Mosssamat Fatema Zebunnessa Chowdhury.
4. After submission of charge-sheet bearing No. 172 dated 30-9-2010 under Sections 408/420 of the Penal Code, the case was transferred to the Court of the learned Metropolitan Magistrate, 2nd Court, Chittagong and the case was registered as TR Case No. 395 of 2010 and 10-2-2011 was fixed for framing of charge against the accused-petitioner. On that date, the accused-petitioner tiled an application under Section 241A of the Code before the Court of the learned Metropolitan Magistrate, for discharging him from the case.
5. The learned Metropolitan Magistrate, after hearing, rejected the application filed by the accused-petitioner vide order dated 10-2-2011 and framed charge against him under Sections 408/420 of the Penal Code, wherein, the accused-petitioner pleaded not guilty and claimed to be tried.
6. Being aggrieved by the order dated 10-2-2011 passed by the learned Metropolitan Magistrate, the accused-petitioner filed Criminal Revision No. 87 of 2011 before the Court of the learned Metropolitan Sessions Judge, Chittagong. Thereafter, the learned Metropolitan Sessions Judge transferred the case to the Court of the Additional Metropolitan Sessions Judge, 5th Court, Chittagong. The learned Additional Metropolitan Sessions Judge vide order No. 16 dated 22-7-2012 was pleased to disallow the Criminal Revision and affirmed the order dated 10-2-2011 passed by the learned Metropolitan Magistrate, Chittagong.
7. Thereafter, the accused-petitioner being aggrieved by and dissatisfied with the impugned proceeding, filed the instant miscellaneous application under Section 561A of the Code and obtained the Rule.
8. Mr HS Deb Brahman, the learned Advocate for the accused-petitioner, takes us through the application, the first information report (FIR), the charge-sheet and other connected materials on record and submits that the allegation as alleged by the informant in the FIR does not fall within the ambit of Section 420 of the Penal Code inasmuch as the informant is not an aggrieved/cheated person. He next submits that the very sanction granted by the Government empowering the informant to lodge the instant FIR is irrelevant in the present case. Therefore, the FIR is out and out false through. He further submits that the impugned proceeding is beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Magistrate, Chittagong inasmuch as the alleged occurrence took place in the United Arab Emirate, which is not under the territorial jurisdiction of Bangladesh. He finally submits that considering the facts and circumstances of the case, it transpires that the impugned proceeding is a sheer abuse of the process of law. Therefore, the impugned proceeding is liable to be quashed.
9. Mr Md Fazlur Rahman Khan, the learned Deputy Attorney-General appearing with Mr M Masud Alam Chowdhury, Mr Swapan Kumar Das and Mr Md Asaduzzaman, the learned Assistant Attorney-Generals on behalf of the State, contends that the accused-petitioner was employed as a servant in a Company, namely Ceramica Cleopetra, Abudhabi, United Arab Emirate. He next contends that during his service, the accused-petitioner committed breach of trust by misappropriating huge amount of money of the Company. The very action of the accused-petitioner has degraded the relationship with a friendly country of Bangladesh. In order to legal retaliation, the Government of Bangladesh granted sanction to lodge the FIR against the accused-petitioner empowering the informant, upon which, the instant proceeding has been initiated lawfully and there is no scope to quash the proceeding exercising the inherent jurisdiction of 'his Court. Therefore, the Rule is liable to be discharged.
 (To be continued)

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