Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Logo
Friday, February 28, 2020 10:42:56 AM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Novelist Jane Austen

photo by

By
13th-Dec-2019       
Share
  • Twitter
  • Google+
  • Save
  • E-mail
  • Print
Comments
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Brian C Southam :
Jane Austen, (born December 16, 1775, Steventon, Hampshire, England-died July 18, 1817, Winchester, Hampshire), was an English writer who first gave the novel its distinctly modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life. She published four novels during her lifetime: Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). In these and in Persuasion and Northanger Abbey (published together posthumously, 1817), she vividly depicted English middle-class life during the early 19th century. Her novels defined the era’s novel of manners, but they also became timeless classics that remained critical and popular successes two centuries after her death.
Life
Jane Austen was born in the Hampshire village of Steventon, where her father, the Reverend George Austen, was rector. She was the second daughter and seventh child in a family of eight-six boys and two girls. Her closest companion throughout her life was her elder sister, Cassandra; neither Jane nor Cassandra married. Their father was a scholar who encouraged the love of learning in his children. His wife, Cassandra (née Leigh), was a woman of ready wit, famed for her impromptu verses and stories. The great family amusement was acting.
Jane Austen’s lively and affectionate family circle provided a stimulating context for her writing. Moreover, her experience was carried far beyond Steventon rectory by an extensive network of relationships by blood and friendship. It was this world-of the minor landed gentry and the country clergy, in the village, the neighbourhood, and the country town, with occasional visits to Bath and to London-that she was to use in the settings, characters, and subject matter of her novels.
Her earliest known writings date from about 1787, and between then and 1793 she wrote a large body of material that has survived in three manuscript notebooks: Volume the First, Volume the Second, and Volume the Third. These contain plays, verses, short novels, and other prose and show Austen engaged in the parody of existing literary forms, notably the genres of the sentimental novel and sentimental comedy. Her passage to a more serious view of life from the exuberant high spirits and extravagances of her earliest writings is evident in Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel written about 1793-94 (and not published until 1871). This portrait of a woman bent on the exercise of her own powerful mind and personality to the point of social self-destruction is, in effect, a study of frustration and of woman’s fate in a society that has no use for her talents.
In 1802, it seems likely that Jane agreed to marry Harris Bigg-Wither, the 21-year-old heir of a Hampshire family, but the next morning changed her mind. There are also a number of mutually contradictory stories connecting her with someone with whom she fell in love but who died very soon after. Since Austen’s novels are so deeply concerned with love and marriage, there is some point in attempting to establish the facts of these relationships. Unfortunately, the evidence is unsatisfactory and incomplete. Cassandra was a jealous guardian of her sister’s private life, and after Jane’s death she censored the surviving letters, destroying many and cutting up others. But Jane Austen’s own novels provide indisputable evidence that their author understood the experience of love and of love disappointed.
The earliest of her novels published during her lifetime, Sense and Sensibility, was begun about 1795 as a novel-in-letters called ‘Elinor and Marianne,’ after its heroines. Between October 1796 and August 1797 Austen completed the first version of Pride and Prejudice, and then called ‘First Impressions.’ In 1797, her father wrote to offer it to a London publisher for publication, but the offer was declined. Northanger Abbey, the last of the early novels, was written about 1798 or 1799, probably under the title Susan. In 1803, the manuscript of Susan was sold to the publisher Richard Crosby for £10. He took it for immediate publication, but, although it was advertised, unaccountably it never appeared.
Up to this time the tenor of life at Steventon rectory had been propitious for Jane Austen’s growth as a novelist. This stable environment ended in 1801, however, when George Austen, then age 70, retired to Bath with his wife and daughters.
For eight years Jane had to put up with a succession of temporary lodgings or visits to relatives, in Bath, London, Clifton, Warwickshire, and, finally, Southampton, where the three women lived from 1805 to 1809. In 1804, Jane began The Watsons but soon abandoned it. In 1804, her dearest friend, Mrs Anne Lefroy, died suddenly, and in January 1805 her father died in Bath.
Eventually, in 1809, Jane’s brother Edward was able to provide his mother and sisters with a large cottage in the village of Chawton, within his Hampshire estate, not far from Steventon. The prospect of settling at Chawton had already given Jane Austen a renewed sense of purpose, and she began to prepare Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice for publication. She was encouraged by her brother Henry, who acted as go-between with her publishers. She was probably also prompted by her need for money. Two years later Thomas Egerton agreed to publish Sense and Sensibility, which came out, anonymously, in November 1811. Both of the leading reviews, the Critical Review and the Quarterly Review, welcomed its blend of instruction and amusement.
Meanwhile, in 1811 Austen had begun Mansfield Park, which was finished in 1813 and published in 1814. By then she was an established (though anonymous) author; Egerton had published Pride and Prejudice in January 1813, and later that year there were second editions of Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility. Pride and Prejudice seems to have been the fashionable novel of its season. Between January 1814 and March 1815 she wrote Emma, which appeared in December 1815. In 1816 there was a second edition of Mansfield Park, published, like Emma, by Lord Byron’s publisher, John Murray. Persuasion (written August 1815-August 1816) was published posthumously, with Northanger Abbey, in December 1817.
The years after 1811 seem to have been the most rewarding of her life. She had the satisfaction of seeing her work in print and well reviewed and of knowing that the novels were widely read. They were so much enjoyed by the prince regent (later George IV) that he had a set in each of his residences, and Emma, at a discreet royal command, was ‘respectfully dedicated’ to him. The reviewers praised the novels for their morality and entertainment, admired the character drawing, and welcomed the domestic realism as a refreshing change from the romantic melodrama then in vogue.
For the last 18 months of her life, Austen was busy writing. Early in 1816, at the onset of her fatal illness, she set down the burlesque Plan of a Novel, According to Hints from Various Quarters (first published in 1871). Until August 1816 she was occupied with Persuasion, and she looked again at the manuscript of Susan (Northanger Abbey).
In January 1817, she began Sanditon, a robust and self-mocking satire on health resorts and invalidism. This novel remained unfinished because of Austen’s declining health. She supposed that she was suffering from bile, but the symptoms make possible a modern clinical assessment that she was suffering from Addison disease. Her condition fluctuated, but in April she made her will, and in May she was taken to Winchester to be under the care of an expert surgeon. She died on July 18, and six days later she was buried in Winchester Cathedral.
Her authorship was announced to the world at large by her brother Henry, who supervised the publication of Northanger Abbey and Persuasion. There was no recognition at the time that regency England had lost its keenest observer and sharpest analyst; no understanding that a miniaturist (as she maintained that she was and as she was then seen), a ‘merely domestic’ novelist, could be seriously concerned with the nature of society and the quality of its culture; no grasp of Jane Austen as a historian of the emergence of regency society into the modern world. During her lifetime there had been a solitary response in any way adequate to the nature of her achievement: Sir Walter Scott’s review of Emma in the Quarterly Review for March 1816, where he hailed this ‘nameless author’ as a masterful exponent of ‘the modern novel’ in the new realist tradition. After her death, there was for long only one significant essay, the review of Northanger Abbey and Persuasion in the Quarterly for January 1821 by the theologian Richard Whately. Together, Scott’s and Whately’s essays provided the foundation for serious criticism of Jane Austen: their insights were appropriated by critics throughout the 19th century.
Austen’s novels: an overview
Jane Austen’s three early novels form a distinct group in which a strong element of literary satire accompanies the comic depiction of character and society.
Sense and Sensibility tells the story of the impoverished Dashwood sisters. Marianne is the heroine of ‘sensibility’ - i.e., of openness and enthusiasm. She becomes infatuated with the attractive John Willoughby, who seems to be a romantic lover but is in reality an unscrupulous fortune hunter. He deserts her for an heiress, leaving her to learn a dose of 'sense' in a wholly unromantic marriage with a staid and settled bachelor, Colonel Brandon, who is 20 years, her senior.
Contd on Page 9

Tariff
Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Editorial »

It is a relief not to slash interest rates on postal savings


The government on Wednesday backtracked on its decision to slash the interest rates on ordinary and fixed deposits in Post Office Savings Bank, with the previous rates to return from next month. The disclosure came two weeks after the Finance Ministry decided to slash the interest rates on the three-year ...

International »

Pelosi urges Democratic unity amid Sanders` campaign surge


AP, Washington  :Speaker Nancy Pelosi on Wednesday urged party unity amid Bernie Sanders' surge in the presidential race, even as House Democrats worry about a volatile election season that could put a self-described democratic socialist atop the ticket and threaten their majority."I would hope that everyone would say, no matter ...

City »

Desh Banchao Manush Banchao Andolon formed a human chain in front of the Jatiya Press Club on Thursday in protest against killing of people and ransacking of religious establishments in Delhi.


.

Entertainment »

Neha Dhupia looks glamorous in this Pooja Shroff outfit


Neha Dhupia is known for being a fashion icon as her sense of style never fails. This time she adorns a beautiful Pooja Shroff outfit from her SS’20 collection that she showcased at the Lakme Fashion Week S/S 2020 and we are awestruck! Neha Dhupia rocks the Pooja Shroff’s SS’20 ...

Editorial »

Corruption is the ultimate outcome of unethical evil politics


MEMBERS of Rapid Action Battalion on Tuesday recovered Tk 26.55 crore in cash and fixed deposit receipts worth Tk 5.15 crore from the flat of two ruling party men Enamul Haque Enu and Rupon Bhuiyan who were earlier detained for their involvement in the illegal casino business. A good amount ...

Entertainment »

Kriti Sanon brings fashion in full spring


Kriti Sanon looks all pop and fun as she poses for her clothing brand’s new amazing spring-summer collection 2020.Styled by Kriti Sanon, MsTaken is the fashion brand for the bold and carefree woman of today. The brand says, “life isn’t serious” it materialises its tag line by being peppy and ...

Sports »

Jelena Ostapenko of Latvia hits a return during the women's singles second round match against Barbora Strycova of the Czech Republic at the 2020 WTA Qatar Open in Doha, Qatar on Tuesday.


International »

Sanders calls Netanyahu 'reactionary racist'


The Independent :Bernie Sanders has called Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu a "reactionary racist", while saying he supports Israel during the latest Democratic debate.Mr Sanders, who is one of the frontrunners in the contest, said he was "very proud" to be Jewish when he was asked about his position on ...

Entertainment »

Nishita always keeps requests from audience


Entertainment Report :While performing in stage shows popular singer Nishita Barua always got requests from the audience to render her popular original song titled Bondhu Tomai Mone Pore and she also kept their requests. It is Nishita-rendered her most popular song. This time another two songs of her includes in ...

International »

Turkey, Russia to hold more talks to reduce Syria tensions


AP, Ankara :Turkey's president announced Tuesday that a Russian delegation would arrive the following day to resume talks aimed at easing tensions in northwestern Syria. He also said no consensus was reached for a four-way meeting next month between the leaders of France, German, Russia and Turkey.However, Recep Tayyip Erdogan ...

Cricket »

Victory against Zimbabwe to bolster Bangladesh for Pakistan Test


After getting a much-needed victory in the form of an innings and 106-run in one-off Test over Zimbabwe, which ended their disappointing six-match losing streak in the longer version format, Bangladesh is oozing with confidence to do well against Pakistan.The Tigers will go to Pakistan for the third and final ...

Sports »

Djokovic sizzles into Dubai second round


AFP, Dubai :Novak Djokovic continued his hot early season form on Monday, cruising past Tunisian wild card Malek Jaziri 6-1, 6-2 into the second round of the Dubai Championships.The top seed and four-time champion made short work of Jaziri, who is ranked 260 in the world.Djokovic owns a perfect 14-0 ...

City »

Executive Director of the Transparency International Bangladesh Dr. Iftekharuzzaman speaking at a prèss conference on 'Unveiling of Information of Follow-up Research on the Anti Corruption Commission' organised by TIB at MIDAS Center in the city on Tuesday.


Editorial »

Rape incidents increasing when all preventive measures failed


A total of 59 women were raped and sexually harassed on public transport across the country in 2019. There were 52 incidents of women repression on public modes of transportation -- 44 on the roads and four each on rail and river ways, the media reported quoting the survey report ...

Entertainment »

Darshana’s new film Protighat


Model-actress, Darshana Banik, who has acted in some critically acclaimed films, both in the South industry and in Tollywood, is on cloud nine now. She will soon be seen in Rajiv Biswas’ upcoming film Protighat which also stars Soham and Priyanka Sarkar in lead roles. The film is a passionate ...

 
Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
 
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Email:
Write a comment to this news