Home Today's Paper Most Popular Video Gallery Photo Gallery
Subscription Blog Signin Register
Thursday, January 2, 2020 09:06:04 PM
Follow Us On: Facebook Twitter Twitter Twitter Twitter

Writer, scholar J R R Tolkien

photo by

  • Twitter
  • Google+
  • Save
  • E-mail
  • Print
Share your thought
Post a comment »
Read all () »

Wayne G Hammond :
JR R Tolkien, in full John Ronald Revel Tolkien, (born January 3, 1892, Bloemfontein, South Africa-died September 2, 1973 Bournemouth, Hampshire, England), English writer and scholar who achieved fame with his children’s book The Hobbit (1937) and his richly inventive epic fantasy The Lord of the Rings (1954-55).
At age four Tolkien, with his mother and younger brother, settled near Birmingham, England, after his father, a bank manager, died in South Africa. In 1900, his mother converted to Roman Catholicism, a faith her elder son also practiced devoutly. On her death in 1904, her boys became wards of a Catholic priest. Four years later Tolkien fell in love with another orphan, Edith Bratt, who would inspire his fictional character Lúthien Tinúviel. His guardian, however, disapproved, and not until his 21st birthday could Tolkien asks Edith to marry him. In the meantime, he attended King Edward's School in Birmingham and Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1915; M.A., 1919). During World War I he saw action in the Somme. After the Armistice he was briefly on the staff of The Oxford English Dictionary (then called The New English Dictionary).
For most of his adult life, he taught English language and literature, specializing in Old and Middle English, at the Universities of Leeds (1920-25) and Oxford (1925-59). Often busy with academic duties and also acting as an examiner for other universities, he produced few but influential scholarly publications, notably a standard edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1925; with E.V. Gordon) and a landmark lecture on Beowulf (Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics, 1936). Tolkien had completed a translation of Beowulf in 1926, and it was posthumously published, along with classroom lectures he had given on the subject, some of his notes, and an original short story inspired by the legend, as Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary (2014). He also published an edition of the Ancrene Wisse (1962).
In private, Tolkien amused himself by writing an elaborate series of fantasy tales, often dark and sorrowful, set in a world of his own creation. He made this 'legendarium,' which eventually became The Silmarillion, partly to provide a setting in which 'Elvish' languages he had invented could exist. But his tales of Arda and Middle-earth also grew from a desire to tell stories, influenced by a love of myths and legends. To entertain his four children, he devised lighter fare, lively and often humorous. The longest and most important of those stories, begun about 1930, was The Hobbit, a coming-of-age fantasy about a comfort-loving 'hobbit' (a smaller relative of Man) who joins a quest for a dragon's treasure. In 1937 The Hobbit was published, with pictures by the author (an accomplished amateur artist), and was so popular that its publisher asked for a sequel. The result, 17 years later, was Tolkien's masterpiece, The Lord of the Rings, a modern version of the heroic epic. A few elements from The Hobbit were carried over, in particular a magic ring, now revealed to be the One Ring, which must be destroyed before it can be used by the terrible Dark Lord, Sauron, to rule the world. But The Lord of the Rings is also an extension of Tolkien's Silmarillion tales, which gave the new book a 'history' in which Elves, Dwarves, Orcs, and Men were already established.
Contrary to statements often made by critics, The Lord of the Rings was not written specifically for children, nor is it a trilogy, though it is often published in three parts: The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. It was divided originally because of its bulk and to reduce the risk to its publisher should it fail to sell. In fact it proved immensely popular. On its publication in paperback in the United States in 1965, it attained cult status on College campuses. Although some critics disparage it, several polls since 1996 have named The Lord of the Rings the best book of the 20th century and its success made it possible for other authors to thrive by writing fantasy fiction. It had sold more than 50 million copies in some 30 languages by the turn of the 21st century. A film version of The Lord of the Rings by New Zealand director Peter Jackson, released in three installments in 2001-03, achieved worldwide critical and financial success. Jackson then adapted The Hobbit as a trilogy comprising the films An Unexpected Journey (2012), The Desolation of Smaug (2013), and The Battle of the Five Armies (2014). In 2004 the text of The Lord of the Rings was carefully corrected for a 50th-anniversary edition.
Several shorter works by Tolkien appeared during his lifetime. These include a mock-medieval story, Farmer Giles of Ham (1949); The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (1962), poetry related to The Lord of the Rings; Tree and Leaf (1964), with the seminal lecture 'On Fairy-Stories' and the tale 'Leaf by Niggle'; and the fantasy Smith of Wootton Major (1967). Tolkien in his old age failed to complete The Silmarillion, the 'prequel' to The Lord of the Rings, and left it to his youngest son, Christopher, to edit and publish (1977). Subsequent study of his father's papers led Christopher to produce Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth (1980); The History of Middle-earth, 12 vol. (1983-96), which traces the writing of the legendarium, including The Lord of the Rings, through its various stages; and The Children of Húrin (Narn I Chin Hurin: The Tale of the Children of Hurin), published in 2007, one of the three 'Great Tales' of The Silmarillion in longer form. Christopher also edited Beren and Lúthien (2017), which centres on the romance between a man and an elf and was inspired by Tolkien's relationship with his wife; the book contains various retellings of the story, including the original version that was written in 1917.
Among other posthumous works by Tolkien are The Father Christmas Letters (1976; also published as Letters from Father Christmas), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (1981), the children's stories Mr. Bliss (1982) and Roverandom (1998), and The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún (2009), two narrative poems drawn from northern legend and written in the style of the Poetic Edda. The Fall of Arthur (2013) was an unfinished verse exploration of Arthurian legend inspired by the Middle English Morte Arthure.
novel: Scene, or setting
…continuum and the English scholar J.R.R. Tolkien in his Lord of the Rings (1954-55) created an 'alternative world' that appeals greatly too many who are dissatisfied with the existing one. The world of interplanetary travel was imaginatively created long before the first moon landing. The properties of the future envisaged…
Lewis Carroll: Through the Looking-Glass
Children's literature: The creation of worlds …and Middle English language scholar J R R Tolkien, was not written with children in mind. But they have made it their own. It reworks many of the motives of traditional romance and fantasy, including the Quest, but is essentially a structure, conceivably but not inevitably allegorical, of sheer invention on a….Ends

Add Rate

News Archive

Inside The New Nation

Editorial »

Girls have proven their dominance again

THE New Year-2020 began with a high optimism on education, particularly for girls who have outshined the boys in the two biggest public examinations -- Primary Education Completion Examination (PECE) and Junior School Certificate (JSC) Examinations. In terms of participation rate, success rate and grades achieved, the girls were well ...

Football »

Mane set to be crowned king of Africa as troubles rumble on

Agency :Liverpool sharpshooter Sadio Mane is expected to become the first African football headline-maker of 2020 by winning the Player of the Year award in Egypt next week.The January 7 ceremony will set in motion a year sure to be full of drama on and off the field with 2022 ...

Entertainment »

Riya: A tale of promising actress

Sheikh Arif Bulbon :Among the promising actresses of present time, Sanjana Sarkar Riya came into discussion within short time by virtue of her acting skill. In role of Shishir in Mostafa Kamal Raj-directed drama serial Family Crisis, which is being aired on NTV, Riya’s acting is appreciating the viewers. Riya ...

Editorial »

Wishing for peace and sanity

IT'S the first day of the New Year -2020. A new year usually begins with new hope and renewed determination to review the past and change things for the betterment of all.  All over the world coming of a new year embraces with joy in expectation that all of them ...

Football »

Maradona due in city marking Bangabandhu's 100th birth anniversary

Argentine football legend Diego Maradona will come to Bangladesh in 2020 as part of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's  100th birth anniversary,  Bangladesh Football Federation (BFF)  President Kazi Salahuddin told the media on Tuesday.Although the time and activities of the World Cup winner has not been fixed as yet, Salahuddin said ...

Entertainment »

Jaya delighted to work with Atanu Ghosh

Entertainment Report :Jaya Ahsan is once again mesmerizing audiences with her stellar acting in Atanu Ghosh directed Robibaar opposite Prosenjit Chatterjee. Since its release last Friday, social media is showering praise on the Robibaar team. While some are floored by the fresh pair of Prosenjit and Jaya’s on-screen chemistry others ...

Business & Economy »

Biman makes Tk 218 cr profit in FY 2018-19

Economic reporter :The national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines earned profit of Taka 218 crore in the fiscal year 2018-2019.This was revealed during Biman's 12th Annual General Meeting (AGM), held at its headquarters at Balaka Bhaban on Monday.The airline has earned a net profit of Taka 218 crore in the ...

National »

Illegally lifted sands from Padma River being used in RNPP

Obaydul Islam Robi, Charghat (Rajshahi) :A section of influentials  allegedly with help of locals are lifting sands illegally from the Padma River  at Pakshey Hardinge Bridge, Lalon Shah Bridge points and other areas   and  major portion of these illegally lifted sans are being used in Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant ( ...

International »

N Korea's leader Kim calls for 'military countermeasures'

AFP, Seoul :North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has called for "diplomatic and military countermeasures", state media said Tuesday, ahead of a year-end deadline for Washington to change its stance on stalled nuclear talks with Pyongyang.His latest comments, made during a meeting of top ruling party officials in Pyongyang on ...

International »

Trump says gun laws and 'heroes' saved lives at Texas church shooting

AFP, Houston :US President Donald Trump on Monday said gun laws in the state of Texas saved lives when a church security officer shot dead a gunman who killed two during a service.The Sunday shooting at a church service in the Fort Worth Suburb of White Settlement was the latest ...

Entertainment »

Charlize Theron on her mom killing her dad in self defense: 'Not ashamed to talk about it'

Hollywood star Charlize Theron has opened up about her childhood when her mother shot and killed her alcoholic father in self defence, saying she is not "ashamed" to talk about the incident. The incident took place in June, 1991 in Benoni, near Johannesburg, when her father tried to harm Theron. ...

Cricket »

Hashim Amla set to join Khulna Tigers to play BBPL

Former South African batsman Hashim Amla is all set to join Khulna Tigers to play the ongoing Bangabandhu Bangladesh Premier League (BBPL).Khulna team management informed that the opener, considered as one of the greats of South African cricket will arrive in Bangladesh today (Tuesday).Amla, also the former Protease skipper is ...

International »

Putin weighs future options as he marks 20 years in power

AP, Moscow :As Russian President Vladimir Putin marks two decades in power , he boasts about his achievements but remains coy about his political future - a reticence that fuels wild speculation about his intentions.Putin points to the revival of Russia's global clout, industrial modernization, booming agricultural exports and a ...

Editorial »

Cold-hit people deserve more philanthropic attention

AS the temperature is plummeting sharply and cold wave sweeping throughout the country, children and elderly people are falling into cold-related illnesses. According to Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), a total of 4,196 patients received treatment for cold-related ailments at different government hospitals countrywide on Saturday. Fifty deaths were ...

Entertainment »

Natasha Suri to deal with web harassment the legal way

Lately, former Miss World India and actress Natasha Suri was dragged in a controversy as some online portals tagged the actress in some stories about ‘leaked bikini pics’ originally belonging to another model named ‘Natasha Suri Singh’ resulting in her getting mentally harassed. Taking the strict road, Natasha Suri has ...

Items that you save may be read at any time on your computer, iPad, iPhone or Android devices.
Are you new to our website? Do you have already an account at our website?
Create An Account Log in here
Email this news to a friend or like someone
Write a comment to this news