Tuesday, October 27, 2020 08:42:05 PM
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have been playing vital role in the economic development of Bangladesh. The sector comprises heterogeneous group ranging from trading to manufacturing depending on employment, turnover and capital employed. Light Engineering Sector (LES) is one of the SME sectors that has been playing a crucial role. Light Engineering Sector is largely comprised of small enterprises and some medium enterprises. According to the available information, the Light Engineering Sector (LES) in Bangladesh consists of over 40,000 firms and generates an annual revenue of about BDT 20,000 crores a year. Most of LES output plays a critical role in key national sectors such as agriculture, transportation, construction, RMG etc According to rough estimations, Light Engineering Sector of Bangladesh created about 3,00,000 direct employment and at the same time around 30,00,000 indirect job opportunities in different supportive industries. It acts as feeder to key national industries. Export of Light Engineering products/ Equipment fetched over 600 million US$. It plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of the country. Light Engineering Industries (LEI) or more broadly Light Engineering Sector (LES) are the mother of all industries. Machinery and spare parts produced by the entrepreneurs of this sector are supplied to various mills and factories. Since, LES occupy a unique position in the economy of Bangladesh, it deserves due support from all concerned including Banks and NBFIs of the country. This article will discuss the Light Engineering Sector of Bangladesh and it needs for modernization.
LES-as a Thrust Sector
Light engineering has been listed as one of the SME sub-sectors in the Industrial Policy (IP). The industrial policy proposed for a number of incentives for the SMEs of the country including Light Engineering Sector. These include: special incentive and financial assistance; tax exemptions; relief from double taxation; tax holiday; accelerated depreciation etc. Light engineering sector has got due importance in the Export Policy of the country. It has been identified as one of the thrust sectors in the export policy of the country. As per the policy document, LES should get project loans and export credit at simple conditions and relatively low rate of interest. Moreover, government is committed to offer subsidies and help marketing the product in foreign markets. Government has decided to develop a 'Light Engineering Cluster Village' to promote the sector. A Modern Laboratory and Common Facilities Centre has to be setup for skill development on modern machinery and for providing testing facilities for the LEIS. LES has an Annual turnover around $1.6 billion- of which import substitute products are worth around $200 million. Investment of LES in Bangladesh is about $15.00 billion and export growth is approximately 30 per cent. The government is providing a 10 per cent cash incentive on the export of Light Engineering Products (LEPs). A talk held at the Dhaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry claimed that the export income from the sector was $510 million between 2011-16 and it was predicted to attain $15 billion by 2041. The present world market size is about $8 trillion and so there is a good opportunity to export LEPs. Bangladeshi LEPs enjoy duty free access in European and American
Markets. Experts believe that the sector has the potential to be a significant foreign exchange earner. Currently, the LES contributes 2.2 per cent to GDP which is more than yearly foreign aid contributions to GDP of Bangladesh. The Country is now aiming to export LE. products and in doing so, it needs to follow/use state-of-the-art technology, precision machinery, world-class knowledge and experience, high quality/durable materials, eco-friendly manufacturing process, social compliance, continuous innovation and global acceptance LESs potential is still unknown to the general public and the policy maker. The country has not yet tapped into the sector's potential and the LES faces Multidimensional problems. Even with all these problems and constraints the country has been able to export a few LEPs to foreign countries including Europe and USA.
The Products are:
Spare parts of Paper & Cement Mills, Bicycle, Fancy light fitting, Construction equipment, Battery, Electrical wires and cables, Iron Chain, Cast iron articles, Carbon rod, Automobile spares, Electronics items, and Stainless Steel Wares.
This is too meager compared to country's expected potential and world market size.
Product of LES in Bangladesh:
Light Engineering Sector in the range of SME posses a capital investment within the gamut from cottage to medium industries including small industries as has been defined in the industrial policy of the country. The product variety of this sector encompasses all kinds of ferrous and non ferrous metal products, foundry products, machinery, equipment and instruments (electrical and non-electrical), spare parts, electrical and electro-mechanical products, parts of machine and manufacturing processes that are made from ceramics, rubber, plastic, glass etc and the spares made of electronic components including circuits are considered as LES products. The sector predominantly consists of products from foundry and machine-shop. The electrical parts and gazettes also belong to this sector. The major services in the LES are repair, maintenance, erection, installation, fabrication, support services, consultancy etc.
Product Lines of LES
Product lines of LES are quite wide and diversified. It has been engaged in manufacturing machinery and spare parts for various engineering and non engineering sectors. Products of this sector are of proven quality and many of these items do confirm to export standards. They may be broadly classified as follows:
Spare parts: The subcontractors and other spare parts makers around the country have developed various types of spare parts locally. These spare parts commonly belong to rail engine, rail line, automobile, machine tools, jute and textile, tea processing, chemical industries (like fertilizer, cement etc), sugar and food industries, water transport, pharmaceutical industry, gas line fittings, bathroom fittings, electronic accessories, electrical accessories, agro-support and agro-processing, telecommunication, electrical pole fittings, water supply and irrigation, etc. Apart from these, there are LES throughout the those produce many other types of spare parts as per orders of their clients and market needs.
Complete Machines: The LES of the country also produce complete machines mostly belonging to the following sectors: 2) Agro-support and Agro-processing: Sprayer, Weeding Machine, Power Tiller, Hydro Tiller, Foraging Machine, Threshing Machine, Rice Mill, Rice Boiler, Rice Dryer, Low Lift Pump, Deep Tube Well, Deep Well Turbine Pump, Low And Medium Pressure Centrifugal Pump, Sluice Gate etc.
3) Tea Processing: CTC Machine(Single, Duplex, Triplex), Rotor vane Machine, Barbara Leaf Conditioner, Green Leaf Sifter, Mckintosh Sorting Machine, Middleton Stalk Extractor, Trines Sorter, Slow Speed Fibre Extractor, Tea Sorting Machine, Rolling Table, Trough Weathering Unit, Miracle Mill, Ball Breaker, Duplex Tea Packer, etc.
4) Food Processing: Flour Mill, Spice Grinding Machine, Oil Expeller, Biscuit and Bakery Plant, Vermicelli and Noodles Making Machine, Juice Extractor from Sugar Cane, Liquid Filling Machine, Bottle Sealing Machine, etc.
5) Pharmaceuticals: Mixer Machine, Mixing Barrel, Emulsifier, Ball Mill, Vacuum Emulsifier, Tablet Making Machine, Blister Making Machine, etc.
6) Jute and Textile: Spinning Machine, Industrial Sewing Machine, Softener Machine, Hand Loom, Power Loom, Twisting Machine, Doubling Machine, Scroll Roller, etc.
7) Water Transport: Engine Driven Local Boats, Launch, Steamer, Trawler, Barge, Dredger, etc.
8) Road Transport: Body Building of Bus and Trucks, Improvised Transport locally known as Bhotbhoty, etc.
9) Construction: Concrete Mixer, Soil Testing Machine, Brick and Stone Crusher, Crane, Road Roller, Grand Roller, Floor Polishing Machine, Metal Doors and Windows, Roof Hoist Machine, Brick Making Machine, etc.
10) Furniture: Metal Furniture of various types both for household and office, various types of equipment are also seen as a recent development.
11) Electrical and Electronic Appliance: Humidifier, Dehumidifier, Water Heater, Ceiling Fan, Wires and Cables, Power Transformers, Voltage Stabilizer, IPS, Electronic Control System, etc.
Beneficiaries of LES; The LES; products serve the local needs and save the most valuable foreign exchange by producing import substitute items. It also helps technology transfer and adaptation to take place whenever needed. LES is the seed bed of indigenous entrepreneurship in the country. But LES had begun to grow slowly without any conscious support from any authority. Traditional ideas, past experience and imitation have been the source of technology since beginning but still continued to grow into a potential sector of economy in the country. Strong backward and forward linkages between LES and other sectors have been developed through supply of wide range of products and spare parts. The numbers of items that are being supplied are increasing day by day and more complex items are produced with more precision as the local manufacturers are gradually becoming consident of their ability to produce them. As a resuli they are now mutually interdependent than ever before and the beneficiaries are buying the local products with full confidence and satisfaction.
Beneficiaries of LES
Factories and Mills
Fertilizer • Paper • Jute and Textile • Garments •Cement •Food Processing •Tea Processing •Pharmaceuticals •Agro based •Agro supportive •Sugar
•Gas Transmission •Power Transmission • Water supply •Sanitation •Telecom •Civil Aviation
•Rail and railway •Road Transports •Ferry •Automobile• Manual Transport •Dredger •Steamer, Launch •Ship building •Engine boats •Lifts and escalators
•Electrical Household •Electronic Equipment •Construction •Packaging •Rickshaw and Bicycle •Rice Boiler •Stone Crushing •Garment wash machine/ boiler
LES in Present Global Business Context:
LES in Bangladesh is characterized by traditional and indigenous technologies. In the present global business context it has been observed that their existing production techniques and processes are dragging them to become uncompetitive except in areas where precision and sophistication are less important. Therefore, LES must harness technology appropriate to them to enhance their national and international competitiveness. Like any other SMEs, the LES also are facing many challenges in the age of market and trade globalization. They therefore, need to strengthen their technology base to make themselves competitive, and to create a niche for themselves. The opportunities are immense if they can upgrade their capabilities by catching up the modern techniques of management, production and marketing. In the present fast-changing business environment distinction between domestic and foreign markets is becoming irrelevant. The 'level playing field offers opportunities as well as challenges to all in business and especially LES. This has brought opportunities to LES because they can sell and invest more even across the borders of their own country to earn more. This opportunity in turns brought competition for LES in their expanded markets. Apart from competition the changes in the customer needs and preferences are driving them to innovate or upgrade products and services to cater to the ever-changing needs of the market.
A Way Out for LES:
LES will therefore, have to improve their products and services, evolve marketing strategies and develop new technologies in order to remain competitive and stay at the leading edge of technology. Thus, technology and its management have become the best way of ensuring a competitive advantage in the global business on a 'level playing field'. In Bangladesh the LES are facing difficulties in their transition to high technology from traditional processes after the introduction of more precise, faster and less power hungry technologies like numerically controlled machines, CAD/CAM, micro-electronics and opto-electronic control and measuring devices, including material testing equipment like Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Carbon and Sulphur analyzer with computer printer etc. They, therefore, need enhanced supports both domestically and internationally. This support is essential in order to harness opportunities originating from the globalization of trade and investment. This is also necessary to cope up with the rapidly changing technologies to remain competitive even in the local market by attaining quality standards. In the light of the above discussion, the production process of LES items may be divided into two major groups one belonging to less precise production system mostly comprising of traditional machinery like various types of lathe, milling, shaper, drill, conventional furnaces with conventional metal testing system, etc and the other belonging to highly precise production system comprising of CMC lathe, Centre machine, EDMs, CNC milling, laser cutting machine, foundries with atomic absorption spectrometer, mud contest tester and core hardness tester etc. It may be mentioned here that the products of traditional production line will continue to prevail in the market for all conventional uses but the market for precision items are ever expanding and in many areas becoming a challenge for the items of conventional production line. So a gradual shift from conventional to modern system of production or a happy mixture has been becoming essential to remain competitive in the LES business.
Modern System of Production: Actually: for more than three decades, the world has been passing through an exciting stage of technological progress. Advance technologies have brought about changes in the manner of production. We must now realize that the mechanical engineering industry has been strongly revivified by the age of electronics to Mechatronics, which now conditions not only the production system of LES but rather the entire industrial system. The transition from mechanical engineering to machatronics is reflected by indepth modification of the products, which is produced by this branch. Instead of offering machines it now delivers workshops or system of machines. These highly productive and widely used numerically controlled systems of machines or rather workshops are a qualitative leap from conventional discrete machines.
The transition of high technology in iraditional industries such as metal, light engineering etc is undermining the competitiveness of the product of ageold production system. Anticipating the prospects of modern technology some entrepreneurs have been introducing these technologies into their existing system. But the progress is slower than it should be. They find it difficult to procure these modern machines mainly due to their financial constraints.
Thus banks and financial institutions have a role to play to encourage the sector. The government can encourage LES by tax relief (0%) on such modern numerically controlled machines or system of machine. The banks should also continue to support the conventional system of production. The products of the traditional system, as very high value added items, will continue to remain in use as before rather their use will simultaneously be increased with the proliferation of manufacturing units and with the increase of the number of beneficiaries and development in other industrial sectors. Bangladesh has a prospect for these products both in the local and in the vast foreign markets, provided strict material standard and workmanship can be assured.
Machine Shop-Conventional Machine Shop and Production Process: This type of machine shop is very common in our country. A conventional machine shop uses only electromechanical machines and normally has no electronic or computerized automated machines. The products of these machines have inherent limitations. They are less precise. The measuring instruments and equipment used in these machine shops also have limitation in precise measurements. These machines are power hungry and yet less productive. But till today, with all these limitations, they are in use and will continue to remain in use where requirement of productivity, precision (regarding measurements of dimensions of the products) is less or can be ignored.
Actually, products of these machines are acceptable where larger tolerance in measurement is allowed. One of the major characteristic of these machine shops is that, they serve the local needs and can function in any economic sphere of the country. They have developed strong backward and forward linkages with other sectors of economy by supplying wide range of products. A few of these machine shop products are exported to other countries including India. There is enough scope for the products of these machine shops to be exported, if proper financial, technological and marketing support could be provided.
Since the beginning of the industrialization process in Bangladesh the market opportunity for machine shop products has been the most easily to avail. In every part of the country machine shops are found the most. From very small workshop with merely a welding set to moderately equipped workshop with machinery like, lathe, shaper, milling, plainer, jig boring, etc. are found in every districts of the country in large numbers. They are engaged in local repair and maintenance works and in producing replaceable items like, gears, shafts, crankshafts, pistons, etc to more complicated spare parts of automobiles, railway locomotives, marine transports, textile and jute mill, sugar mill, gas line fitting, etc. A few of them also make complete machinery for agro-processing, Pharmaceuticals, workshop, jute and textile, garments, construction, water transports, etc.
But machine shops in Bangladesh rely much on conventional machines. They are yet to introduce computerized machines (CNCs) for precision jobs. Besides, the country is yet to create much-needed modern die making and
modern foundry shop facilities. So, there still exist profitable scopes for LES if they are prepared to employ modern equipment and machinery, these are:
1.Modern workshop with CNCs. 2. Modern die making shop with EDMS and CNCs. 3. Modern foundry shop with Atomic absorption spectrometer, carbon and sulphur analyzer, computerized auto scan plasma spectrometer, etc for alloy and material testing. 4. Precision sheet metal pressing workshop with hydraulic press and other precision dice and machines and properly linked (under agreement) with modern dice making shops.
Products of these LES if established will enjoy opportunities both in the local market, in the absence of any local competition and in the export market, taking advantage of the cheap labour and local gas resources to support the large energy requirements of the foundries. The products of these machine shops will also help other industries to grow.
Modern Machine Shop and Production Process: The product-complex, which the mechatronics industry provides, is an assembly of four types of elements, these are:
1. A system/or informatics for control, management and monitoring of the whole complex; 2. An assembly of machining centres consisting of machine tools with a wide range of tools and able to work on parts with different characteristics;
3. A system for conveying the parts from the entrance of the workshop, from machining centres to machining centres and thence to the exit from the workshop; and, 4. An assembly of handling units for loading and unloading that is to say the interfaces between the conveying system and to machining centres and to the entry, exit or intermediate storage areas.
These are numerically controlled machine tools (NCMT). They act when they receive their instructions from computers, which programme and monitor their work. These machines have opened up a new manner of production system. Such workshop shows hourly productivities of factories multiplied by many units, whilst the productivity per worker increases by a factor of more than ten. T'or the sake of convenience a list of modern machines and equipment are given below. The list contains all necessary modern machines that are needed for a modern machine shop, and foundry equipment and instruments for metal testing in foundry and machine shop are shown in the list.
But this should be noted here that all these machinery and equipment are not needed at a time for any workshop. These are needed according to production plan and actual requirement of an industry and are also used in limited numbers in economically viable areas of production in a machine shop.
It is expected that the existing machine shops in the country will gradually acquire these machines as and when these will be required and a few of them have already begun to import these machines. These machines are essential where precision of job cannot be ignored for example dice making and production of highly precise spare parts. Dice making for producing fashionably designed metal and plastic cabinets and components with conspicuous look or intricately designed and production of extremely precise metai, rubber or plastic spare parts is noi possible without CAD/CAM ,NCMT, EDM etc.
Heat Treatment of Metals and Alloys:
Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. The term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally and not where heating and cooling occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as welding. Heat treatment of metals and alloys are of four types; they are: 1. Annealing 2. Hardening and tempering (quenching and tempering) 3. Precipitation hardening 4. Selective hardening.
Metallic materials consist of microstructures of small crystals called grains or crystallites. The feature of the grains (i.e. grain size and composition) is one of the most effective factors that can determine the overall mechanical behavior of the metal. Heat treatment provides an efficient way to manipulate the properties of the metal by controlling rate of diffusion, and the rate of cooling within the microstructures. Metallurgists often devise complex heat treating schedules to optimize alloy's mechanical properties. For example, in the aerospace industry, a super alloy may undergo five or more different heat treating operations to develop the desired properties to ensure quality.
Without heat treatment the spare parts will quickly suffer wear and tear and will cause serious hassles for the users eventually earning bed reputations for the manufacturers. In Bangladesh most of the machine shops lack heat treatment facilities which is causing serious quality crisis of their products. For hardening and surface treatment of their products most of them have adapted arbitrary methods relying much on experience. Almost all the metalic components and spare parts of a car, bus, truck, locomotive, engines, generator sets and every machine around us are heat treated. This is done to achieve the best performance of the machine where they are used. Here the discussion on all the above mentioned four techniques is out of the scope of this article But the importance of heat treatment can be understood from the above discussion. It can be useful for the bankers to realize and consider loan proposals for heat treatment plants from any foundry or as an independent project.
Electric Parts are essential LES products. In Bangladesh not much has yet been done to promote the sub sector. But so far entrepreneurs, with their own efforts have been able to contribute in this very important area. At present their main products are Power transformer, switch gear, electric wires and cables, base caps for tube light and incandescent lamps, fluorescent tubes, incandescent bulbs, energy saving bulbs, automobile bulbs, switch, socket, plugs, ballast, good number of electric and telephone line and pole fittings, electric generators for rail and locomotives, railway signals, water heater, humidifier and dehumidifier, all types of fans, light fittings including fancy light fittings, IPS, voltage stabilizer, spare parts of lifts and escalators, remote control switching for fan, light and machines, microprocessor based control system etc. An estimate of the Bangladesh Electrical Merchandise Manufacturers Association showed that per year their members produce electrical parts the total value of which is around Tk.10,000 crores.
A simple examination of the products shown above will show that the majority of the products can be manufactured in moderately equipped machine shop with an addition of a few purpose based equipment and machines. Cables and wires, incandescent bulbs, fluorescent tubes, base caps etc. of course, have different process line of manufacturing. Normally they are produced in batches. So far cables and wires, fancy light fittings and power transformers have been exported.
Modern System of Production: Though the present scale of production of electrical parts in Bangladesh will not yield enough return to accommodate modern machines, but any attempt to venture into export or compete with imported goods will demand these machines. For instance if a motor making company wants to produce electric motors with conspicuous look of international standard, they must produce its armature in a high quality turning machine. Body of the motors also should be dice cast in a dice casting machine with extreme precision. For core cutting a CNC cutting/slotting machine will produce the desired results. All other parts such as screws, bolts copper wires, connectors etc. should be made from high grade metals and alloys. They must use motor testing set with dynamometer, insulation testing equipment etc for testing. All plastic components including cabinets for any product must come from the dice produced in CNC machine and EDM. Here, to ensure precision CAD is an important area of application in designing these components.
Summary of Discussion:
In every part of the country LEls are found, since market opportunity for LEI has been the most easily to avail. They are engaged in local repair and maintenance works and in producing replaceable items like, gears, shafts, pistons, etc to more complicated spare parts of automobiles, railway locomotives, marine transports, textile and jute mill, sugar mill, gas line fitting, etc. A few of them also make complete machinery for agro processing and food, pharmaceuticals, workshop, jute and textile, garments, construction, water transport, sugar mill, etc. But LEIs have the following limitations:
1. LEls in Bangladesh predominantly depend on conventional and indigenous machines like lathe, shaper, milling, plainer, etc.
2. LEls are yet to introduce CNCs in their workshops:
3. The foundries and the workshops are not conversant with modern heat treatment and material testing.
4. Though only a few LEIs have limited heat treatment facilities and conventional chemical testing laboratories for material testing, they are yet to introduce testing equipment like, Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Computerized carbon and Sulphur Analyzer for material testing.
5. LEIs have no facilities like Magnetic Crack Tester & Demagnetizer for crack detection, Metal Spectroscope, etc.
6. For lack of CNCs, Centre Machines, Three Dimensional Measuring Device etc. high quality precision jobs are not possible to be done in any LEI.
7. For lack of modern testing machines and equipment proper material testing cannot be done in the LEls or elsewhere in any organization in the country.
8. LEIS yet to create modern dice making facilities and at present they relay on makeshift arrangements with conventional workshop machines and tools
for dice making though only a few of them have conventional pantograph. They therefore, lack quality and acceptability even in the local market.
9. LEls need to introduce modern precision sheet metal stamping facilities for precision sheet metal works.
LEls need upgradation and modernization for attaining quality and acceptability of their products. The most of the countries in Asia are supporting this sector through establishing various technical training centers with all modern machines and equipment. SMEs are reluctant to buy and use modern technology, which they never used before which needs high level of skill to operate. Therefore, Bangladesh also needs to establish such facility centre in the country to assist SMEs to acquire modern technology and upgradation of skills. The centre should help SMEs in reverse engineering, product development and quality testing. Without such facility center skill development of SMEs in modern technology will remain as impossible as ever.
LEls in Bangladesh are yet to introduce modern machinery for precision jobs and without which export of spare parts/engineering products from Bangladesh will remain almost impossible. Besides, the country is yet to create much-needed modern dice making and modern foundry shop facilities. So, there still exist profitable gaps to be filled up by SMEs with modern machinery and equipment, these are:
1. Modern workshop with CNCs (see list of machinery below).
2. Modern dice making shop with EDMs and CNCs (list of Machinery below).
3. Modern foundry shop with Atomic absorption spectrometer for alloy and composite material casting (list of other necessary machines below).
4. Precision sheet metal pressing workshop with hydraulic press and other precision machines
Products of these LEls, if established, will enjoy opportunities both in local and export markets, taking advantage of the cheap labour and abundant gas resources (for foundries).
List of machinery & equipment for modern workshop foundry and testing- Mold and dice making. Mechanical shop. Heat treatment and Foundry Machines
1. Electric Discharge Machine (EDM), dice sink, with accessories, spares and software.
2. Electric Discharge Machine (EDM), wire cut, with accessories, spares and software.
3. Laser Cutting Machine, with accessories, spares and software.
4. CAD-CAM Desktop tutor, with accessories, spares and software.
5. Three dimensional measurement device with control system and accessories, spares and software.
6. Co-ordinate Measuring Machine with control system and accessories, spares and software.
7. Centre Machine with accessories, cutting tools, spares and software.
8. CMC lathe with accessories, cutting tools, spares and software.
9. CNC milling machine (2 axis control, 3 axis digital readout with DRO, CNC retrofit control) with accessories, spares and software.
10. Three dimensional copy milling machine with accessories and spares.
11. Spiral gear generator with spares and accessories.
12. Pantograph machine with accessories and spares.
13. Surface grinder and Honing machine with accessories and spares.
14. Grinding machine (micro-finish) with accessories and spares.
15. Pressure dice casting machine with accessories and spares.
16. TIG/MIG/MAG welding set with accessories and spares.
17. Surface treatment machine with accessories and spares.
18. Heat treatment plant complete with accessories and spares for surface treatment, carburizing, nitriding, annealing and cooling bath/quenching.
B. Mechanical and Material Testing Laboratory: equipment/Machinery.
1. Carbon & Sulphur Analyser with Computer and printer
2. Speedy Moisture Tester for moisture determination.
3. Atomic Absorption Spectrometer for estimation of ferrous and nonferrous elements.
4. Pendulum Type Tensile Tester for Bend test and rebend test. Tensile strength determination, compression strength measurement etc.
5. Universal Testing Machine.
6. Magnetic Crack Tester & Demagnatiser for Crack detection.
7. Metallographic Equipment Buffer (Polishing) for surface preparation in metallographic study.
8. Metallographic Microscope with Accessories for study of structure/grain distribution of metals.
9. Metal spectroscope with Accessories for spectroscopic study of metals
10. Rebound Hardness. Tester with Stand cone for Hardness Testmg.
11. Ball impact Hardness Tester for impact testing.
12. Mud contest Tester & core Hardness Tester.
13. Precision Balance Digital, Accuracy: 0 - Ing, weighing range. 200 mg
14. Computerized Auto scan plasma Spectrometer covering 80 Elements of periodic table.
15. Hand operated Hydraulic pump fitted with calibrated pressure and for measuring compressive strength of ceramics, cement, tiles etc.
16. Ultrasonic crack Detector for internal crack detection
17. Chamber Furnace with Measuring and Regulating panel
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