Intersection of structural factors and political instability in Bangladesh

Dr Matiur Rahman :

Bangladesh grapples with multifaceted structural factors contributing to political instability, including a history of political polarization, frequent changes in governance, and disputes over power-sharing among political elites.

Tensions between major political parties, such as the Bangladesh Awami League and Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), often result in protests, strikes, and occasional violence, further exacerbated by issues related to corruption, weak governance institutions, and inadequate socioeconomic development.

Additionally, factors like socio-economic disparities, religious extremism, and challenges in upholding the rule of law have deepened the fragility of the political landscape, perpetuating a cycle of instability and hindering the country’s progress towards sustained political harmony and development.

The intersection of structural factors refers to the complex interplay and overlap of various foundational elements within a society that collectively influence its dynamics and functioning. These factors encompass a wide array of components such as historical legacies, socioeconomic disparities, institutional frameworks, political systems, cultural norms, and external influences.

This convergence of structural factors shapes the fundamental landscape of a society, impacting its governance, socio-economic conditions, power structures, and overall stability.

The interaction and interdependence of these structural elements often create a web of complexities that influence social, political, and economic outcomes, underscoring the need for comprehensive and holistic approaches when addressing societal challenges.

Bangladesh, marked by a vibrant culture and resilient people, has grappled with the complex interplay of structural factors and political instability.

This South Asian nation, despite significant strides in economic development and social progress, has often found itself entangled in a web of challenges stemming from its socio-political framework.

At the heart of Bangladesh’s struggle lies a nexus between its structural facets and the recurring waves of political upheavals.

The structural elements encompass a range of issues, including socioeconomic disparities, governance inefficiencies, institutional weaknesses, demographic pressures, and environmental vulnerabilities.

When entwined with the volatile nature of its political landscape, these factors create a volatile brew that continually tests the nation’s stability.

One of the critical structural elements influencing political stability in Bangladesh is its socioeconomic landscape. The country faces acute income inequality, with a significant portion of the population existing below the poverty line.


This economic disparity breeds discontent among the masses, often serving as fertile ground for political unrest. Moreover, unemployment and underemployment challenges, particularly among the youth, fuel the fire of political discontent.

Governance inefficiencies and institutional weaknesses further exacerbate the situation. Corruption, a longstanding issue in Bangladesh, undermines trust in governance structures and leads to widespread disillusionment among citizens. Weak rule of law and a lack of effective mechanisms for dispute resolution also contribute to the perpetuation of political instability.

Demographic pressures pose another significant challenge. Bangladesh grapples with a burgeoning population, putting immense strain on resources, infrastructure, and services. The failure to adequately address the needs of this growing populace can create social tensions, providing a breeding ground for political instability.

Environmental vulnerabilities, including frequent natural disasters and the looming threat of climate change, add a layer of complexity. Bangladesh, prone to cyclones, floods, and rising sea levels, faces an uphill battle in safeguarding its citizens and ensuring stability in the face of these environmental hazards.

These structural factors intertwine with the political sphere, shaping the power dynamics and governance landscape. A history of power struggles, polarisation, and a lack of consensus on critical national issues characterises the political scenario in Bangladesh.

The tension between major political parties often leads to protests, strikes, and, at times, violent confrontations, disrupting the normal functioning of the country.

The interplay between structural elements and political instability becomes more evident during elections. Election-related tensions and controversies often result from allegations of electoral malpractices and the perceived lack of fairness in the electoral process. Such disputes have historically triggered widespread unrest, undermining the nation’s stability.

In response to these challenges, Bangladesh has shown resilience and undertaken measures to address these structural issues. Efforts to boost economic development, improve governance, and invest human capital have been ongoing.

The government has initiated programs to alleviate poverty, enhance education, and promote sustainable development.
However, much remains to be done. Effectively addressing the intersection of structural factors and political instability demands a holistic approach.

Strengthening institutions, fostering inclusive governance, tackling corruption, and prioritising sustainable development are paramount. Investing in education and healthcare and creating avenues for gainful employment can help mitigate the socioeconomic disparities fuelling political unrest.

International cooperation and support also play a crucial role. Bangladesh requires assistance in tackling environmental challenges and managing its demographic pressures. Collaborative efforts on climate resilience, disaster preparedness, and sustainable resource management can significantly contribute to stability.

The intricate interplay between structural factors and political instability in Bangladesh underscores the complex nature of the nation’s challenges. Resolving these issues demands concerted efforts, both domestically and internationally. By addressing the root causes of instability, fostering inclusive governance, and prioritising sustainable development, Bangladesh can pave the way towards a more stable and prosperous future for its citizens.

(The writer is a researcher and
development worker.)